Sacred Geometry in Ancient Egypt
By M. Gadalla
The Cosmic Geometry
Herodotus, the father of history and a native Greek, stated in 500 BCE:
Now, let me talk more of Egypt for it has a lot of admirable things and what one sees there is superior to any other country.
The Ancient Egyptian works, large or small, are admired by all, because they are proportionally harmonious and as such appeal to our inner as well as outer feelings. This harmonic design concept is popularly known as sacred geometry—where all figures could be drawn or created using a straight line (not even necessarily a ruler) and compass, i.e. without measurement (dependent on proportion only).
The principles of sacred geometry are of Ancient Egyptian origin, which constituted the basis of harmonic proportions, as evident in their temples, buildings, theology, …etc. The Ancient Egyptian design followed these principles in well-detailed canons. Plato himself attested to the longevity of the Egyptian harmonic canon of proportion (sacred geometry), when he stated, “the pictures and statues made ten thousand years ago…”
The key to divine harmonic proportion (sacred geometry) is the relationship between progression of Continue reading
Male Nkisi Figure with Strips of Hide, held at the Brooklyn Museum, CC
Nkisi (plural minkisi, zinkisi or nkisi [n- concords with mi-] according to dialect). The term nkisi is the general name for a a spirit, or for any object that spirit inhabits. It is frequently applied to a variety of objects used throughout the Congo Basin in Central Africa thought to contain spiritual powers or spirits. The term and its concept have passed with the enslavement of Africans into the Americas, especially South America (in Palo Mayombe the spirits of nkisi are often called “[…]”).
The current meaning of the term derives from the root, *-kitį- referring to a spiritual entity, or material objects in which it is manifested or inhabits in Proto-Njila, an ancient subdivision of the Bantu language family.
In its earliest attestations in Kikongo dialects in the early seventeenth century it was spelled “mokissie” (in Dutch), as the mu- prefix in this noun class were still pronounced, and was reported by Dutch visitors to Loango as referring both to a material item and the spiritual entity that inhabits it. In the sixteenth century, when the Kingdom of Kongo was converted to Christianity, ukisi (a substance having characteristics of nkisi) was used to translate “holy” in the Kikongo Catechism of 1624. Continue reading
A Short History of Egypt – to about 1970
[Unknown Student, Stanford University]
See Part 1 (Chapter 9)
Chapter 15. The Arab Conquest.
Until the end of the 6th century Arabia (except for the fertile Yemen is the South) was a land of nomadic tribes, fighting with each other, trading on the caravan routes, with no semblance of political unity, and polytheistic in religion. A hundred years later these desert Arabs, unified and disciplined by the new faith preached by Mohamed, had conquered in the name of Islam Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, some of Turkestan and India, Egypt, northern Africa and Spain.
This extraordinary transformation does not seem to have been initially due to any fanatical desire to spread the new religion; in fact the Arabs made no great effort to convert the peoples they conquered. Continue reading
A BRIEF HISTORY OF EGYPT
By Arthur Goldschmidt Jr., 2008
3 PERSIAN, GREEK, ROMAN, AND ARAB RULE (525 B.C.E.–1250 C.E.)
In 525 B.C.E. Egypt ceased to be ruled by Egyptians. With very few exceptions, the head of the Egyptian state would always be a foreigner […]. For most of this time Egyptians would still serve as administrators, scribes, judges, religious leaders, and village headmen. Egypt’s subordination to the Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs, described in this chapter, set the pattern for later colonization by other outsiders. Usually the Egyptians accepted their lot, but sometimes they rebelled openly and often they subverted or influenced their foreign masters. A modern Arabic proverb sums up the popular view: Fi bilad Misr khayruha li-ghayriha (In the land of Egypt, its good things belong to others).
The year 525 was when Cambyses II, the Persian emperor, defeated the last Saite pharaoh, conquered Egypt, and established the [27th] Dynasty. The Persians, originally tribal nomads in what now is Iran, Continue reading
A statue of the final Egyptian God’s Wife of Amun at Thebes, Ankhenesneferibre (from Pinterest)
A Short History of Egypt – to about 1970
[Unknown Student, Stanford University]
Chapter 9. – The Decline of the Empire.
By 1085 B.C. the great days of Egypt were over. Except for an interlude in the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. the seven and a half centuries from 1085 B.C, to the conquest by Alexander the Great [Murderer] was a period of internal disunity and foreign Nomination.
The approximate chronology of this period is as follows
1085 – 945. Twenty first Dynasty – divided rule.
944 – 715. Twenty second to Twenty fourth Dynasties – divided rule and Libyan control.
715 – 664. Twenty fifth (Ethiopian) Dynasty.
664 – 525. Twenty sixth (Egyptian – Saite) Dynasty. Renaissance of Egyptian culture and power.
525 – 404. Twenty seventh (Persian) Dynasty.
404 – 343. Twenty eighth to Thirtieth Dynasties. Some degree of independence from Persia.
343 – 332. Thirty first (Persian) Dynasty.
332 B.C. Conquest by Alexander the [Greek].
The Twenty first Dynasty – nobles of Tanis in the delta – strove for authority against the priests of Amun in Thebes. The Twenty second to Twenty fourth Dynasties was a further period of divided rule, during which Libyan chiefs who had been employed in the Egyptian army founded a Libyan dynasty with their capital at Bubastis in the delta. Then came the conquest of Egypt by the Kings of Cush Continue reading
An Eternal Curse upon the Reader of These Lines
Robert K. Ritner, 2003
In retribution for the ‘prying’ or ‘intrusive curiosity’ inherent in the reading of another’s words, the Argentine novelist Manuel Puig entitled a 1980 work ‘Eternal Curse on the Reader of these Pages.’ The same sentiment appears in Egyptian magic. A Coptic curse preserved in the British Museum (Oriental Ms. 5986) begins with an invocation for divine wrath directed not against its primary victims (who are later damned by name), but against the accidental discoverer:
God of heaven and earth! Whoever shall open this papyrus and read what is written in (it), may all those things written in it descend upon him.1
A counterpart is provided by the Coptic Papyrus Lichaev, which concludes a specific curse with a similar generic warning:
Whoever opens this papyrus and reads it, what is written on it will come upon him, by order of the lord god.2
Such invocations of divine hostility have their origin well before Coptic Christianity, in magical practices of Late Period Egypt that exploit the bond between the demonic and the divine. Continue reading
PREPARATION FOR INITIATION
by Awo Falokun Fatunmbi
The first step in preparation for initiation is to set up an ancestor shrine and to start asking the ancestors for support in the initiation process.
Building an Ancestor Shrine
In traditional Ifá culture everyone is believed to have the ability, and the obligation to communicate with the ancestors on a daily basis. According to Ifá oral tradition, communication with your ancestors is a
birthright and requires no special sanction. At times this communication can simply involve remembering a revered ancestor and making use of the memory as a basis for making an important decision. In many ways ancestor communication is an extension of the training and wisdom we receive from our parents and grand parents. In Yoruba culture it is common for the uninitiated to make direct contact with ancestors spirits. The most prevalent method of Continue reading