Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Akkadian: Uru; Arabic: أور) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar in south Iraq’s Dhi Qar Governorate.
Although Ur was once a coastal city near the mouth of the Euphrates on the Persian Gulf, the coastline has shifted and the city is now well inland, south of the Euphrates on its right bank, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Nasiriyah.
The city dates from the Ubaid period circa 3800 BC, and is recorded in written history as a City State from the 26th century BC, its first recorded king being Mesh-Ane-pada. The city’s patron deity was Nanna (in Akkadian, Sin), the Sumerian and Continue reading
From Jewish Encyclopedia
Upon pre-Talmudic demonology new light has been thrown by the “Testament of Solomon,” translated by Conybeare in “Jew. Quart. Rev.” (1898, xi. 1-45), a work which, notwithstanding many Christian interpolations, is of ancient Jewish origin and related to the “Book of Healing” (“Sefer Refu’ot”) ascribed to King Solomon (see Pes. iv. 9; Josephus, l.c.; Schürer, “Geseh.” iii. 300). In this “Testament” it is told that by the help of a magic ring with the seal of Pentalpha, Lilith-like vampires, Beelzebub, and all kinds of demons and unclean spirits were brought before Solomon, to whom they disclosed their secrets and told how they could be mastered. It contains incantations against certain diseases, and specifies the task allotted to each of the chief demons in the erection of the Temple.
The latter was a favorite theme of the Haggadists (Pesiḳ. R. vi.; Soṭah 48b; Giṭ. 68a). The later Haggadah ascribed to Moses this power to Continue reading
From Jewish Encyclopedia
Systematic knowledge concerning demons or evil spirits. Demons (Greek, δαίμονες or δαιμόνια; Hebrew, [Deut. xxxii. 17; Ps. cvi. 37] and [Lev. xvii. 7; II Chron. xi. 15; A. V. “devils”; Luther, “Feldgeister” and “Feldteufel”]; Aramaic, or rabbinical, and as spirits animating all elements of life and inhabiting all parts of the world, have their place in the primitive belief of all tribes and races. When certain deities rose to be the objects of regular worship and became the rulers of the powers of life, demons, or spirits, were subordinated to them. But inasmuch as they were still feared and occasionally worshiped by the populace, they became the objects of popular superstition. Continue reading
Lucifer’s Fall in Isaiah 14
LUCIFER (light-bearer), found in Isaiah. 14:12, coupled with the epithet “son of the morning,” clearly signifies a “brightstar,” and probably what we call the morning star. In this passage it is a symbolical representation of the king of Babylon in his splendor and in his fall. Its application, from St. Jerome downward, to Satan in his fall from heaven arises probably from the fact that the Babylonian empire is in Scripture represented as the type of tyrannical and self-idolizing power, and especially connected with the empire of the Evil One in the Apocalypse.
Lucifer in Isaiah 14 is an appellation referring to the King of Babylon. I presume you will look at the above references in their complete context. Once you do you’ll find many of the above quoted commentaries and dictionaries go on to state that although this reference to Lucifer is referring literally to the fallen or falling King of Babylon, the metaphor is still referring to “Satan.” In light of the concept of “satan” which means adversary, opposer or accuser, one is adding to Scripture by applying a meaning of a literal Satan to the term. Continue reading
ENUMA ELISH – THE EPIC OF CREATION
L.W. King Translator
(from The Seven Tablets of Creation, London 1902)
THE SECOND TABLET
Tiamat made weighty her handiwork,
Evil she wrought against the gods her children.
To avenge Apsu, Tiamat planned evil,
But how she had collected her forces, the god unto Ea divulged.
Ea harkened to this thing, and
He was grievously afflicted and he sat in sorrow.
The days went by, and his anger was appeased,
And to the place of Ansar his father he took his way.
He went and, standing before Ansar, the father who begat him,
All that Tiamat had plotted he repeated unto him, Continue reading