In the Qur’an, [there are] three words to describe our hearts: qalb, fu‘ad and sadr. We know that every Arabic word is chosen for a reason, yet all three of these words for the most part are translated as “heart.” As usual, the intricate meanings of these words are not captured in the translation.
So, what is their difference?
Qalb is the general word for heart. It comes from the root which means something that turns around and about and upside down. It is the nature of hearts that they are constantly changing, this is the normal state of our hearts. When ta’ala refers to eman and diseases of the heart, qalb is used.
Fu’ad is from the verb fa’ada meaning burning or a flame. Continue reading
Rahab and the Spies
1 Joshua the son of Nun secretly sent two men out of Shittim as spies, saying, “Go, view the land, including Jericho.” They went and came into the house of a prostitute whose name was Rahab, and slept there.
2 The king of Jericho was told, “Behold,* men of the children of Israel came in here tonight to spy out the land.”
3 Jericho’s king sent to Rahab, saying, “Bring out the men who have come to you, who have entered into your house; for they have come to spy out all the land.”
4 The woman took the two men and hid them. Then she said, “Yes, the men came to me, but I didn’t know where they came from. 5 About the time of the shutting of the gate, when it was dark, the men went out. Where the men went, I don’t know. Pursue them quickly. You may catch up with them.” 6 But she had brought them up to the roof, and hidden them under the stalks of flax which she had laid in order on the roof. 7 The men pursued them along the way to the fords of the Jordan River. As soon as Continue reading
The Teacher of Righteousness
in the Qumran Texts
By F. F. BRUCE, 1957
I. THE TEACHER AND THE TEXTS
‘The Teacher of Righteousness’ is the name given in a number of the lately discovered Qumran documents to a man who was held in high veneration by the religious community on whose beliefs and practices these documents have thrown so much light. If he was not actually the founder of the community, it was certainly he who impressed upon it those features which distinguished it from other pious groups which flourished among the Jews during the last two or three centuries of the Second Commonwealth. So far as we can gather from our present sources of information, he is never referred to by his personal name in the Qumran texts.1
The title bestowed on him by his followers, ‘The Teacher of Righteousness’ (Heb. moreh sedeq or moreh hassedeq), may echo Hosea x. 12, where the prophet calls to his people: ‘break up your fallow ground: for it is time to seek the LORD, till he come and rain righteousness (Heb. yoreh sedeq) upon you.’ The RV margin gives ‘teach you righteousness’ as an alternative translation to ‘rain righteousness Continue reading
King James Bible
1. Habakkuk’s Complaint
1 The burden which Habakkuk the prophet did see. 2 O LORD, how long shall I cry, and thou wilt not hear! even cry out unto thee of violence, and thou wilt not save! 3 Why dost thou shew me iniquity, and cause me to behold grievance? for spoiling and violence are before me: and there are that raise up strife and contention. 4 Therefore the law is slacked, and judgment doth never go forth: for the wicked doth compass about the righteous; therefore wrong judgment proceedeth.
The Lord’s Answer
5 Behold ye among the heathen, and regard, and wonder marvellously: for I will work a work in your days, which ye will not believe, though it be told you. 6 For, lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation, which shall march through the breadth of the land, to possess the dwellingplaces that are not theirs. 7 They are terrible and dreadful: their judgment and their dignity shall proceed of themselves. 8 Their horses also are swifter than the leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves: and their horsemen shall spread themselves, and their horsemen shall come from far; they shall fly as the eagle that hasteth to eat. 9 They shall come all for violence: Continue reading
A Short History of Egypt – to about 1970
[Unknown Student, Stanford University]
See Part 1 (Chapter 9)
Chapter 15. The Arab Conquest.
Until the end of the 6th century Arabia (except for the fertile Yemen is the South) was a land of nomadic tribes, fighting with each other, trading on the caravan routes, with no semblance of political unity, and polytheistic in religion. A hundred years later these desert Arabs, unified and disciplined by the new faith preached by Mohamed, had conquered in the name of Islam Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, some of Turkestan and India, Egypt, northern Africa and Spain.
This extraordinary transformation does not seem to have been initially due to any fanatical desire to spread the new religion; in fact the Arabs made no great effort to convert the peoples they conquered. Continue reading
A BRIEF HISTORY OF EGYPT
By Arthur Goldschmidt Jr., 2008
3 PERSIAN, GREEK, ROMAN, AND ARAB RULE (525 B.C.E.–1250 C.E.)
In 525 B.C.E. Egypt ceased to be ruled by Egyptians. With very few exceptions, the head of the Egyptian state would always be a foreigner […]. For most of this time Egyptians would still serve as administrators, scribes, judges, religious leaders, and village headmen. Egypt’s subordination to the Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs, described in this chapter, set the pattern for later colonization by other outsiders. Usually the Egyptians accepted their lot, but sometimes they rebelled openly and often they subverted or influenced their foreign masters. A modern Arabic proverb sums up the popular view: Fi bilad Misr khayruha li-ghayriha (In the land of Egypt, its good things belong to others).
The year 525 was when Cambyses II, the Persian emperor, defeated the last Saite pharaoh, conquered Egypt, and established the [27th] Dynasty. The Persians, originally tribal nomads in what now is Iran, Continue reading
The Malāmatiyya (ملامتية) or Malamatis were a mystic group active in the 9th century Greater Khorasan. Their root word of their name is the Arabic word malāmah (ملامة) “blame”. The Malamatiyya believed in the value of self-blame, that piety should be a private matter and that being held in good esteem would lead to worldly attachment. They concealed their knowledge and made sure their faults would be known, reminding them of their imperfection. The Malamati is one for whom the doctrine of “spiritual states” is fraught with subtle deceptions of the most despicable kind; he despises personal piety, not because he is focused on the perceptions or reactions of people, but as a consistent involuntary witness of his own “pious hypocrisy”. Continue reading