Mutations in mtDNA D-loop region of mtDNA in various tissues of Papuan individuals
Johnson Siallagan,1 Agnes Maryuni,1 Jukwati,2 Rosye H. R. Tanjung3 and Yohanis Ngili1, Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8 (14):73-79
1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Cenderawasih, Jayapur a, Indonesia. 2 Study Program of Chemistry, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Cenderawasih, Jayapura, Indonesia. 3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Cenderawasih, Jayapura, Indonesia.
High mutation rate of mtDNA causes the difference in the nucleotide sequence of mtDNA between individual (high degree of polymorphism). At the mtDNA there are areas that do not encode controller (noncoding region), which is known by the local displacement loop (D-loop), which has two areas with high variations which hypervariable region I (HVR1) and hypervariable region II (HVR2). But there is no information on whether the nucleotide sequence of mtDNA D-loop is the same for the different cells in certain individuals. The purpose of this study to obtain nucleotide sequence information area mtDNA D-loop different cells on each individual to five individuals with different ages. Stages of research performed includes preparation of template mtDNA by way of cell lysis. Amplification fragments of mtDNA D-loop with the method of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using the primers M1 and HV2R. Continue reading
Goddess of Compassion – One Who Saves
Diamonds are Her Sacred Stone.
Tara or Arya Tara, also known as Jetsun Dolma, is a female Bodhisattva typically associated with Tibetan Buddhism. She is the “mother of liberation”, and represents the virtues of success in work and achievements.
Tara is actually the generic name for a set of Bodhisattvas of similar aspect. These may more properly be understood as different aspects of the same quality, as Bodhisattvas are often considered metaphoric for Buddhist virtues. As Mahatara, Great Tara, she is the supreme creatrix and mother of all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.
Tara is the Feminine Goddess Archetype in Hindu Mythology. Tara governs the Underworld, the Earth and the Heavens, birth, death and regeneration, love and war, the seasons, all that lives and grows, the Moon cycles – Luna – feminine – creation.
Her animals are the sow, mare, owl and raven.
She is the most popular figure in the Tibetan pantheon of deities, the beautiful goddess Tara, (pronounced tah’ rah) whose name in means ‘Star’ – originated in Indian Hinduism as the Continue reading
1883 Eruption of Krakatoa
The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) began in the afternoon of August 26, 1883, and culminated with several destructive eruptions of the remaining caldera. On August 27, two-thirds of Krakatoa collapsed in a chain of titanic explosions, destroying most of the island and its surrounding archipelago.
It was one of the deadliest and most destructive volcanic events in recorded history, with at least 36,417 deaths being attributed to the eruption itself and the tsunamis it created. Significant additional effects were also felt around the world.
In the years before the 1883 eruption, seismic activity around the volcano was intense, with earthquakes felt as far away as Australia. Beginning 20 May 1883, steam venting began to occur regularly from Perboewatan, the northernmost of the island’s three cones. Continue reading
Senoi, Kilton Stewart and The Mystique of Dreams:
Further Thoughts on an Allegory About an Allegory
by G. WILLIAM DOMHOFF
“Senoi” dream theory, which is centered around the idea that we should share and control our dreams for spiritual development, is an attractive theory said to derive from an appealing, non-violent people living simply in the highlands of Malaysia. But the real story of “Senoi” dream theory can be a painful one for at least two reasons that go beyond the usual academic conflicts over the validity and usefulness of ideas. First, some people in the United States and elsewhere make their living off of it by leading dream groups; they therefore have more at stake than do professors who are secure in their jobs whether their ideas pan out or not. Second, the theory resonates with deeply held cultural and spiritual values that almost compel people to believe it; they therefore become very upset when it is questioned. Continue reading
The Selling of the Senoi
By ANN FARADAY and JOHN WREN-LEWIS
It has been said that when religions are faced with new discoveries challenging their authority, they react in three predictable stages: first, “It’s not true”; second, “It’s wicked”; and third, “We knew it all along so why make a fuss about it?” A remarkably similar process is currently taking place amongst True Believers in the religion of so-called “Senoi dream control.”
Their first protest, when reports began to appear in the late 1970s denying that the Senoi tribe of Malaysia really practice dream manipulation, was to accuse the “militaristic Malaysian government” of suppressing both the gentle aborigines and their secret of non-violence. It was even seriously suggested that all visitors, including professional researchers, were ushered into jungle “concentration camps” where brainwashed Temiar, speaking through government interpreters, denied all knowledge of a dream control culture. Great care was taken, so the story went, to see that outsiders never penetrated to the hidden remnant of Temiar/Senoi who had escaped from government surveillance to keep their traditions alive in the jungle depths. Continue reading