Tag Archives: Science

Ol’ Gyroscopes


This most attractive example is in the apparatus collection at Bowdoin College. It has no maker’s name and is about 40 cm high. 

The gyroscope was invented in 1852 by the French experimental physicist Leon Foucault (1819-1868) as part of a two-pronged investigation of the rotation of the earth. The better-known demonstration of the Foucault pendulum showed that the plane of rotation of a freely-swinging pendulum rotated with a period that depends on the latitude of its location.

His gyroscope was a rapidly rotating disk with a heavy rim, mounted in low-friction gimbals. As the earth rotated beneath the gyroscope, it would maintain its orientation in space. This proved to be hard to do in practice because the frictional forces bring the spinning system to rest before the effect could be observed. The gimbal bearings also introduce unwanted torque. But, the principle is well-known to all children who move their toy gyroscopes about and observe that the spinning disk stays in the same orientation. Continue reading

Get A Gyroscope

How Gyroscopes Work

by M. Brain

Gyroscopes can be very perplexing objects because they move in peculiar ways and even seem to defy gravity. These special properties make ­gyroscopes extremely important in everything from your bicycle to the advanced navigation system on the space shuttle. A typical airplane uses about a dozen gyroscopes in everything from its compass to its autopilot. The Russian Mir space station used 11 gyroscopes to keep its orientation to the sun, and the Hubble Space Telescope has a batch of navigational gyros as well. Gyroscopic effects are also central to things like yo-yos and Frisbees!


If you have ever played with toy gyroscopes, you know that they can perform all sorts of interesting tricks. They can balance on string or a finger; they can resist motion about the spin axis in very odd ways; but the most interesting effect is called precession. This is the gravity-defying part of a gyroscope. Continue reading

Force of Quet

Computer drawing of a bar with a weights at the end. Torque equals ...Torque

In physics, torque can be thought of informally as “rotational force”. The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the work of Archimedes on levers. The force applied to a lever, multiplied by its distance from the lever’s fulcrum, is the torque. Torque is measured in units of newton metres, and its symbol is τ.

For example, a force of three newtons applied two metres from the fulcrum exerts the same torque as one newton applied six metres from the fulcrum. This assumes the force is in a direction at right angles to the straight lever. More generally, one may define torque as the cross product:

\boldsymbol{\tau} = \mathbf{r} \times \mathbf{F}

F is the vector of force.
r is the vector from the axis of rotation to the point on which the force is acting.

The rotational analogues of force, mass and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration respectively. Continue reading

Prime Encryption

 Primes, Modular Arithmetic, and Public Key Cryptography
(April 15, 2004)


Every cipher we have worked with up to this point has been what is called a symmetric key cipher, in that the key with which you encipher a plaintext message is the same as the key with which you decipher a ciphertext message. As we have discussed from time to time, this leads to several problems. One of these is that, somehow, two people who want to use such a system must privately and secretly agree on a secret key. This is quite difficult if they are a long distance apart (it requires either a trusted courier or an expensive trip), and is wholly impractical if there is a whole network of people (for example, an army) who need to communicate. Even the sophisticated Enigma machine required secret keys. In fact, it was exactly the key distribution problem that led to the initial successful attacks on the Enigma machine.

However, in the late 1970’s, several people came up with a remarkable new way to solve the Continue reading

1kb mtDNA Loop

Fig. 39. DNA markers. (a) DNA ladder, Marker 3 in 6% polyacrylamide ...Mutations in mtDNA D-loop region of mtDNA in various tissues of Papuan individuals
Johnson Siallagan,1 Agnes Maryuni,1 Jukwati,2 Rosye H. R. Tanjung3 and Yohanis Ngili1, Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8 (14):73-79
1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Cenderawasih, Jayapur a, Indonesia. 2 Study Program of Chemistry, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Cenderawasih, Jayapura, Indonesia. 3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Cenderawasih, Jayapura, Indonesia.


High mutation rate of mtDNA causes the difference in the nucleotide sequence of mtDNA between individual (high degree of polymorphism). At the mtDNA there are areas that do not encode controller (noncoding region), which is known by the local displacement loop (D-loop), which has two areas with high variations which hypervariable region I (HVR1) and hypervariable region II (HVR2). But there is no information on whether the nucleotide sequence of mtDNA D-loop is the same for the different cells in certain individuals. The purpose of this study to obtain nucleotide sequence information area mtDNA D-loop different cells on each individual to five individuals with different ages. Stages of research performed includes preparation of template mtDNA by way of cell lysis. Amplification fragments of mtDNA D-loop with the method of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using the primers M1 and HV2R. Continue reading

D Loop and Arm

D loop
a structure in replicating circular DNA.
Synonym(s): displacement loop
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary

A Box – A highly conserved (i.e., the DNA nucleotide sequence is similar among many eukaryotic species) region located between base pairs +10 and +20 “upstream” on the tRNA gene, which have the dual role of encoding functional tRNA and promoting tRNA transcription, and acting as a site of receptive protein binding.
Segen’s Medical Dictionary.


A simplified drawing illustrating D-loops forming on the sense strand of DNA isolated during transcription of RNA. The double-helical nature of the DNA–DNA portions is omitted in this drawing.

This article is about DNA structure. For the loop of RNA that forms the end of the D arm of a transfer RNA molecule, see D arm. [Below]

In molecular biology, a displacement loop or D-loop is a DNA structure where the two strands of a double-stranded DNA Continue reading

Prime Arithmetic Progression

Prime Phyllotaxis Spirals | Maxwell's DemonPrime Arithmetic Progression

By MathWorld

An arithmetic progression of primes is a set of primes of the form p_1+kd for fixed p_1 and d and consecutive k, i.e., {p_1,p_1+d,p_1+2d,...}. For example, 199, 409, 619, 829, 1039, 1249, 1459, 1669, 1879, 2089 is a 10-term arithmetic progression of primes with difference 210.

It had long been conjectured that there exist arbitrarily long sequences of primes in arithmetic progression (Guy 1994). As early as 1770, Lagrange and Waring investigated how large the common difference of an arithmetic progression of n primes must be. In 1923, Hardy and Littlewood (1923) made a very general conjecture known as the k-tuple conjecture about the distribution of prime constellations, which includes the hypothesis that there exist infinitely long prime arithmetic progressions as a special case. Important additional theoretical progress was subsequently made by van der Corput (1939), who proved than there are infinitely many triples of primes in arithmetic progression, and Heath-Brown (1981), who proved that there are infinitely many four-term progressions consisting of three primes and a number that is either a prime or semiprime. Continue reading