Rahab and the Spies
1 Joshua the son of Nun secretly sent two men out of Shittim as spies, saying, “Go, view the land, including Jericho.” They went and came into the house of a prostitute whose name was Rahab, and slept there.
2 The king of Jericho was told, “Behold,* men of the children of Israel came in here tonight to spy out the land.”
3 Jericho’s king sent to Rahab, saying, “Bring out the men who have come to you, who have entered into your house; for they have come to spy out all the land.”
4 The woman took the two men and hid them. Then she said, “Yes, the men came to me, but I didn’t know where they came from. 5 About the time of the shutting of the gate, when it was dark, the men went out. Where the men went, I don’t know. Pursue them quickly. You may catch up with them.” 6 But she had brought them up to the roof, and hidden them under the stalks of flax which she had laid in order on the roof. 7 The men pursued them along the way to the fords of the Jordan River. As soon as Continue reading
THE RELIGION OF ANCIENT EGYPT
By W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, 1906
Part 1 See here
VII. THE COSMIC GODS
VIII. THE ABSTRACT GODS
IX. THE FOREIGN GODS
X. THE COSMOGONY
XI. THE RITUAL AND PRIESTHOOD
XII. THE SACRED BOOKS
XIII. PRIVATE WORSHIP
XIV. EGYPTIAN ETHICS
XV. THE INFLUENCE OF EGYPT
CHAPTER VII THE COSMIC GODS
The gods which personify the sun and sky stand apart in their essential idea from those already described, although they were largely mixed and combined with other classes of gods. So much did this mixture pervade all the later views that some writers have seen nothing but varying forms of sun-worship in Egyptian religion. It will have been noticed however in the previous chapters what a large body of theology was entirely apart from the sun-worship, while here we treat the latter as separate from the other elements with which it was more or less combined.
_Ra_ was the great sun-god, to whom every king pledged himself, by adopting on his accession a motto-title embodying the god’s name, such as _Ra-men-kau_, ‘Ra established the kas,’ Continue reading
THE RELIGION OF ANCIENT EGYPT
By W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, 1906
I. THE NATURE OF GODS1
II. THE NATURE OF MAN
III. THE FUTURE LIFE
IV. ANIMAL WORSHIP
V. THE GROUPS OF GODS. ANIMAL-HEADED GODS
VI. THE HUMAN GODS
CHAPTER I THE NATURE OF GODS
Before dealing with the special varieties of the Egyptians’ belief in gods, it is best to try to avoid a misunderstanding of their whole conception of the supernatural. The term god has come to tacitly imply to our minds such a highly specialised group of attributes, that we can hardly throw our ideas back into the more remote conceptions to which we also attach the same name. It is unfortunate that every other word for supernatural intelligences has become debased, so that we cannot well speak of demons, devils, ghosts, or fairies without implying a noxious or a trifling meaning, quite unsuited to the ancient deities that were so beneficent and powerful. If then we use the word god for such conceptions, it must always be with the reservation that the word has now a very different meaning from what it had to ancient minds. Continue reading
The Kemetic Origin of Freemasonry: The Signs and Symbols Do not Lie
By Fahim A. Knight-El, 2010 [Edited]
The signs and symbols of ancient and modern Freemasonry are rooted in Kemet (Egypt) and the evidence is overwhelmingly obvious that Freemasonry borrowed its allegorical myths and ideological metaphors from more ancient societies that were well advanced in the philosophical mysteries. (Reference: Manly P. Hall; “The Secret Teachings of All Ages”.)
It all began in Cush (Abyssinia or Ethiopia) were perhaps some of the wisest Nubians toiled and where civilization originated. Thus transmitting their enlightenment in compliment with how the Nile River flows from south to north. (Reference Sterling Means in his book titled, “Ethiopia and the Missing Link in African History” and John G. Jackson work titled, “Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization”.)
Drusilla Houston in her book titled the “Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire”, stated: Continue reading
By Casandra Birrell
Ptah [pronounced “Tar”] was the creator of the world and he gave life to the gods. Ptah is usually shown in a mummified form with a skull cap.
Ptah was part of the divide triad of gods at Memphis, together with Sekhmet ‘the beloved of Ptah’, (the goddess often identified with HetHeru and Auset) and their son Nefertem who was the god of the blue lotus.
As the sovereign god of the capital city of Memphis, Ptah was also the protector of artisans and artists but little is known about him until the 19th Dynasty (c1300) when Seti I and Ramses II both held him in devotion. Indeed, one of the 4 divisions who fought for Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh was named “Ptah”.
However, the djed pillar popularly associated with Ausar (Osiris) had its roots in the Memphis god of creation for Ptah was termed the ‘Noble djed’. Not only was he a symbol of stability, Ptah was also the symbol of fertility as the sacred Apis bull of Memphis.
With Memphis as the natural centre of a unified Egypt, Ptah was its source, and all other gods were derivatives of him. He was Ptah, the first father of the gods and humankind. The sacred name of Continue reading
Who Was the Teacher of Righteousness in the Dead Sea Scrolls?
By Kerry A. Shirts, 1992 [Excerpted]
The Dead Sea Scrolls are documents (thousands of fragments) found in caves in the deserts of Palestine around Jerusalem, during the 1940’s-50’s, written by Jewish sectaries who fled to the wilderness in opposition to the prevailing powers at Jerusalem, and specifically the Temple, approximately 200 B.C. Samuel Sandmal, notes that it is clear the community of Qumran arose because of the dissatisfaction of how the priests were running the Temple. It had divine sanction, they did not.1
The scrolls contain instructions on how to live in order to be the receivers of a new covenant the sect felt was coming. In other words the documents seem to have an apocalyptic orientation. Every book of the Bible is represented except the Book of Esther, as well as many apocryphal books, commentaries on these books with their particular application to the sect (arguably the Essenes), sectarian materials on how to join the sect, etc. Continue reading
The Teacher of Righteousness
in the Qumran Texts
By F. F. BRUCE, 1957
I. THE TEACHER AND THE TEXTS
‘The Teacher of Righteousness’ is the name given in a number of the lately discovered Qumran documents to a man who was held in high veneration by the religious community on whose beliefs and practices these documents have thrown so much light. If he was not actually the founder of the community, it was certainly he who impressed upon it those features which distinguished it from other pious groups which flourished among the Jews during the last two or three centuries of the Second Commonwealth. So far as we can gather from our present sources of information, he is never referred to by his personal name in the Qumran texts.1
The title bestowed on him by his followers, ‘The Teacher of Righteousness’ (Heb. moreh sedeq or moreh hassedeq), may echo Hosea x. 12, where the prophet calls to his people: ‘break up your fallow ground: for it is time to seek the LORD, till he come and rain righteousness (Heb. yoreh sedeq) upon you.’ The RV margin gives ‘teach you righteousness’ as an alternative translation to ‘rain righteousness Continue reading