Category Archives: Egypt

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Related imageSacred Geometry in Ancient Egypt
By M. Gadalla

The Cosmic Geometry
Herodotus, the father of history and a native Greek, stated in 500 BCE:

Now, let me talk more of Egypt for it has a lot of admirable things and what one sees there is superior to any other country.

The Ancient Egyptian works, large or small, are admired by all, because they are proportionally harmonious and as such appeal to our inner as well as outer feelings. This harmonic design concept is popularly known as sacred geometry—where all figures could be drawn or created using a straight line (not even necessarily a ruler) and compass, i.e. without measurement (dependent on proportion only).

The principles of sacred geometry are of Ancient Egyptian origin, which constituted the basis of harmonic proportions, as evident in their temples, buildings, theology, …etc. The Ancient Egyptian design followed these principles in well-detailed canons. Plato himself attested to the longevity of the Egyptian harmonic canon of proportion (sacred geometry), when he stated, “the pictures and statues made ten thousand years ago…”

The key to divine harmonic proportion (sacred geometry) is the relationship between progression of Continue reading

Ruin of Kemet

https://i2.wp.com/api.ning.com/files/PofT6NSEc2cWM4OymvKrZZR99SO7aqlie8mYWSra-1nEoGYPEAz7CxqqX0bNZU2V4HTBOuZXkz1ehs9aQN3SfRlzRE*4LAkA/6327503WavesofArabConquest.jpgA Short History of Egypt – to about 1970
[Unknown Student, Stanford University]

See Part 1 (Chapter 9)

Chapter 15. The Arab Conquest.
Until the end of the 6th century Arabia (except for the fertile Yemen is the South) was a land of nomadic tribes, fighting with each other, trading on the caravan routes, with no semblance of political unity, and polytheistic in religion. A hundred years later these desert Arabs, unified and disciplined by the new faith preached by Mohamed, had conquered in the name of Islam Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, some of Turkestan and India, Egypt, northern Africa and Spain.

This extraordinary transformation does not seem to have been initially due to any fanatical desire to spread the new religion; in fact the Arabs made no great effort to convert the peoples they conquered. Continue reading

Arab Cover Upon Kemet

A BRIEF HISTORY OF EGYPT
By Arthur Goldschmidt Jr., 2008

3 PERSIAN, GREEK, ROMAN, AND ARAB RULE (525 B.C.E.–1250 C.E.)

In 525 B.C.E. Egypt ceased to be ruled by Egyptians. With very few exceptions, the head of the Egyptian state would always be a foreigner […]. For most of this time Egyptians would still serve as administrators, scribes, judges, religious leaders, and village headmen. Egypt’s subordination to the Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs, described in this chapter, set the pattern for later colonization by other outsiders. Usually the Egyptians accepted their lot, but sometimes they rebelled openly and often they subverted or influenced their foreign masters. A modern Arabic proverb sums up the popular view: Fi bilad Misr khayruha li-ghayriha (In the land of Egypt, its good things belong to others).

Persian Rule
The year 525 was when Cambyses II, the Persian emperor, defeated the last Saite pharaoh, conquered Egypt, and established the [27th] Dynasty. The Persians, originally tribal nomads in what now is Iran, Continue reading

End of Days

https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/b0/c8/68/b0c868d9d59252958280bd2e8db4f17e.jpgA statue of the final Egyptian God’s Wife of Amun at Thebes, Ankhenesneferibre (from Pinterest)

A Short History of Egypt – to about 1970
[Unknown Student, Stanford University]
Chapter 9. – The Decline of the Empire.

By 1085 B.C. the great days of Egypt were over. Except for an interlude in the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. the seven and a half centuries from 1085 B.C, to the conquest by Alexander the Great [Murderer] was a period of internal disunity and foreign Nomination.

The approximate chronology of this period is as follows
1085 – 945. Twenty first Dynasty – divided rule.
944 – 715. Twenty second to Twenty fourth Dynasties – divided rule and Libyan control.
715 – 664. Twenty fifth (Ethiopian) Dynasty.
664 – 525. Twenty sixth (Egyptian – Saite) Dynasty. Renaissance of Egyptian culture and power.
525 – 404. Twenty seventh (Persian) Dynasty.
404 – 343. Twenty eighth to Thirtieth Dynasties. Some degree of independence from Persia.
343 – 332. Thirty first (Persian) Dynasty.
332 B.C. Conquest by Alexander the [Greek].

The Twenty first Dynasty – nobles of Tanis in the delta – strove for authority against the priests of Amun in Thebes. The Twenty second to Twenty fourth Dynasties was a further period of divided rule, during which Libyan chiefs who had been employed in the Egyptian army founded a Libyan dynasty with their capital at Bubastis in the delta. Then came the conquest of Egypt by the Kings of Cush Continue reading

Eternal Curse for the Thiever

An Eternal Curse upon the Reader of These Lines
Robert K. Ritner, 2003

In retribution for the ‘prying’ or ‘intrusive curiosity’ inherent in the reading of another’s words, the Argentine novelist Manuel Puig entitled a 1980 work ‘Eternal Curse on the Reader of these Pages.’ The same sentiment appears in Egyptian magic. A Coptic curse preserved in the British Museum (Oriental Ms. 5986) begins with an invocation for divine wrath directed not against its primary victims (who are later damned by name), but against the accidental discoverer:

God of heaven and earth! Whoever shall open this papyrus and read what is written in (it), may all those things written in it descend upon him.1

A counterpart is provided by the Coptic Papyrus Lichaev, which concludes a specific curse with a similar generic warning:

Whoever opens this papyrus and reads it, what is written on it will come upon him, by order of the lord god.2

Such invocations of divine hostility have their origin well before Coptic Christianity, in magical practices of Late Period Egypt that exploit the bond between the demonic and the divine. Continue reading

NebtHet (Nephthys)

Nephthys – Musée du Louvre, Paris, France

Nephthys

Nephthys (NebtHet) is a member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology, a daughter of Nut and Geb. At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts, Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity, Set. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris, Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience, just as Isis represented the (re-)birth experience.

Nephthys is a Greek epithet, transliterated as Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, from Egyptian hieroglyphs. The literal translation of her name is usually given as “Lady of the House,” which has caused some to mistakenly identify her with the notion of a “housewife,” or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. This is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. Her name means quite specifically, “Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure” which associates her with the role of priestess. Continue reading

Djed Symbol

Two ivory Djed pillars found in a
First Dynasty tomb at Helwan.
(photograph taken by J.D.Degreef)

The Concept of the Djed Symbol
By Vincent Brown, 2012

One of the most enigmatic symbols of Ancient Egypt is the Tet, or  Djed. Although it was widely used as a religious icon throughout much of the history and geography of Ancient Egypt, it is still not clearly understood what the Djed was originally conceived to represent. Determining its meaning from its appearance alone is not an easy task so we shall take some of the suggested definitions and analyse each individually. But first of all lets look at the key elements that make up the symbol.

Typical Distinctive Features:

  • Four horizontal bars surmounting a vertical shaft
  • Vertical striations between each bar
  • These striations are shown in profile on the sides of the Djed creating a curved appearance
  • Four bands around neck of the shaft
  • Sometimes a small capital can be seen surmounting the Djed
  • The Djed often stands on a rectangular base

Continue reading