LUCIFER (light-bearer), found in Isaiah. 14:12, coupled with the epithet “son of the morning,” clearly signifies a “brightstar,” and probably what we call the morning star. In this passage it is a symbolical representation of the king of Babylon in his splendor and in his fall. Its application, from St. Jerome downward, to Satan in his fall from heaven arises probably from the fact that the Babylonian empire is in Scripture represented as the type of tyrannical and self-idolizing power, and especially connected with the empire of the Evil One in the Apocalypse.
Lucifer in Isaiah 14 is an appellation referring to the King of Babylon. I presume you will look at the above references in their complete context. Once you do you’ll find many of the above quoted commentaries and dictionaries go on to state that although this reference to Lucifer is referring literally to the fallen or falling King of Babylon, the metaphor is still referring to “Satan.” In light of the concept of “satan” which means adversary, opposer or accuser, one is adding to Scripture by applying a meaning of a literal Satan to the term.
What did they mean in Luke 10:18 to see Satan fall from heaven like lightening?
The Romans refered to an archenemy with supernatural, God-like abilities. As the Bible is speaking of an adversary that is opposing the plan of God. Σατανα = Satanas. Of Chaldee origin meaning the accuser, that is, the devil. Σατα = Satan. Of Hebrew origin meaning the devil.
And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to hell. Luke 10:15
But when he had turned about and looked on his disciples, he rebuked Peter, saying, Get thee behind me, Satan: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men. Mark 8:33
Added to these facts is the fact that the “devil” and “satan”are thought to be one and the same and we also see that before the Last Supper (Passover) that “Satan” entered Judas.
Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve. Luke 22:3 KJV
Considering all these references to “Satan”, are we to believe that these all mean the same thing and conclude that Peter was Satan and entered Judas; and Peter fell from heaven? After all, there is only one person in the entire “New Testament” who is called “Satan.” Peter is called Satan by the only person who was perfect in speech. So either Peter is Satan; or Yeshua is a lying, name caller.
Yeshua was simply name calling Peter an adversary and sticking to the correct biblical understanding of the term satan. “Get behind me satan for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men.” A “satan” is one who is not for the things of God. Peter is rebuked by Yeshua and is called an adversary because he is not for the things of God. Peter, being a satan, renounced Yeshua.
Peter was not the cosmic Satan of mythology but was “a satan” when he proved to be an adversary to Yeshua. The claim by Yeshua to see satan fall like lightening is not a reference to the daystar in Isaiah that fell from power because of his pride. The word Lucifer in Isaiah, a King, is not to be confused with the reference to the fall from heaven of “Satan” in Luke.
Looking at the passage from Isaiah 14, we must recognize that this dissertation begins a full chapter previously with what is known as “The Oracles Against Foreign Nations.” Chapter 13 is to be read as one long letter carrying on to chapter 17.
The section labeled “Chapter 14” is written about Babylon. It is part of a larger body of admonishments that are directed toward foreign nations and a political system or political leader. Men fall, rulers fall and nations fall; we are not being told of anything other than the fall of human leadership and authority.
Verse 12 is where the name “Lucifer” is gleaned from. Lucifer is simply the Latin word for the original Hebrew word helel, and means the light bearer. The more correct translations use the term “morning star” or “day star”. Many versions still utilize the word Lucifer in the English translation, however, it is typically the case that these translations are based on the KJV translation which has imparted to successive translators a mindset which continues to apply the word “Lucifer” to the “morning star”.
The word “Lucifer,” which meant light bearer in Latin, was referring to the planet Venus. The ruler of Babylon was believed to be the incarnate form of this God Venus, which was believed to be a God that rises before the sun in the morning. The phrase, “daystar”, or “morning star” meant pretty much the same thing.
(American Standard Version) How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star,son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, that didst lay low the nations!
(King JamesVersion-1611) How art thou fallen from heauen, O Lucifer,sonne of the morning? how art thou cut downe to the ground, which didst weaken the nations?
(Literal Translation of the Holy Bible) Oh shining star, son of the morning,how you have fallen from the heavens! You weakening the nations, you are cut down to the ground.
(The Message) What a comedown this, O Babylon! Daystar! Son of Dawn!Flat on your face in the underworld mud, you, famous for flattening nations!
(Youngs Literal Translation) How hast thou fallen from the heavens, O shining one, son of the dawn! Thou hast been cut down to earth, O weakener of nations.
(Jeromes Latin Vulgate) quomodo cecidisti de caelo lucifer qui maneoriebaris corruisti in terram qui vulnerabas gentes
When reading the above Latin Vulgate version of the verse, we see the use of the word “Lucifer” not as a proper noun but a descriptive term, just as was intended by the Hebrew writer who originally wrote these words. The use of the more correct term for helel being, ‘day star,’ or ‘morning star,’ does indeed elucidate the concept which teaches “Lucifer” in Isaiah 14 is referring to the pompous attitude of the King of Babylon and not to some cosmic satan being.
Jerome Added the Word Lucifer
For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. Isaiah 14:13-14 KJV
In Isaiah47:10 we are told of Babylon boasting how “she” is the only one. Babylon is metaphorically said to have raised herself up as the only god. For this reason, she is cast down, brought to nothing.
For thou hast trusted in thy wickedness: thou hast said, None seeth me. Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, it hath perverted thee; and thou hast said in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me. Isaiah 47:10 KJV
They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth totremble, that did shake kingdoms; Isaiah 14:16 KJV
It is a human being that is referred to in the bulk of this oracle against Babylon. Verses 18-20 talk of the human kings of the nations being asleep in their graves but this once proud king will not join them in burial. Does this mean that Satan will not be buried like the human Kings or is this perhaps a statement informing the subject that he is going to miss out on the honor of a Kings burial? It was the honor of a king to have a national memorial and royal burial after he died, however in this instance the fallen king of Babylon, known as the “morning star” and called Lucifer in Isaiah 14, would not receive this honor. He had caused the people to be slain, as verse 20 states, and due to his choice to believe himself a God and attain such an exalted position, he would be refused the funeral and burial that was typical of the kings of the nations.
Fallen from heaven is a figure of speech meaning cast down from an exalted political position. “And you, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades” (Luke 10:15), and apparently with the same meaning, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven” (Luke10:18). The name for Lucifer in Hebrew literally means “Day Star,” or the planet Venus. The poetic language of this verse describes the aspiration of this brightest star to climb to the zenith of the heavens and its extinction before the rising sun.This is an apt summary of the failed goal of the king of Babylon (v.4) who wanted to grasp universal and eternal domination.
Source: Satan, Christianity’s Other God – Volume I, James R. Brayshaw (CHAPTER 8)