A very well known image of Tehuti, the ibis headed Black man.
Name in Medu Neter
Major spiritual center: Khmun
Symbol: The papyrus scroll
Parents: None, thought to be self created, around the same time as Ma’at
Consort: Ma’at, Seshat
Tehuti (also Djehuti), the lord of Khemmenu, self created, to whom non had given birth, is the Neter responsible for teaching the world to write and record information with the Medu Neter system. From many Funerary texts, it’s known that Tehuti was the Neter of all the arts and sciences, that he was the “lord of books,” and the “scribe of the Neteru”, and “Mighty in speech”.
From the Pyramid Texts it’s known that Tehuti was in service to deceased kings. His service was eagerly awaited by the by the souls waiting to join the realm of the Ancestors. People waited for him because it was with him that Ma’at weighed their heart against their past actions. Continue reading
Heh and Hauhet, Deities of Infinity and Eternity
By Caroline Seawright
The ancient Egyptians [KMT] believed that before the world was formed, there was a watery mass of dark, directionless chaos. In this chaos lived the Ogdoad of Khmunu (Hermopolis), four frog gods and four snake goddesses of chaos. These deities were Nun and Naunet (water), Amun and Amaunet (invisibility), Heh and Hauhet (infinity) and Kek and Kauket (darkness).
The water stretched infinitely off in all directions, as ever lasting as time itself. Heh and Hauhet came to symbolise infinity. After time began, Heh and Hauhet came to symbolise limitless time, and long life.
The frog or human headed god Heh (Huh) was one of the original eight gods of the Ogdoad of Khmunu Continue reading
…shades of night.
“The sky grew darker, painted blue on blue, Continue reading
Male Nkisi Figure with Strips of Hide, held at the Brooklyn Museum, CC
Nkisi (plural minkisi, zinkisi or nkisi [n- concords with mi-] according to dialect). The term nkisi is the general name for a a spirit, or for any object that spirit inhabits. It is frequently applied to a variety of objects used throughout the Congo Basin in Central Africa thought to contain spiritual powers or spirits. The term and its concept have passed with the enslavement of Africans into the Americas, especially South America (in Palo Mayombe the spirits of nkisi are often called “[…]”).
The current meaning of the term derives from the root, *-kitį- referring to a spiritual entity, or material objects in which it is manifested or inhabits in Proto-Njila, an ancient subdivision of the Bantu language family.
In its earliest attestations in Kikongo dialects in the early seventeenth century it was spelled “mokissie” (in Dutch), as the mu- prefix in this noun class were still pronounced, and was reported by Dutch visitors to Loango as referring both to a material item and the spiritual entity that inhabits it. In the sixteenth century, when the Kingdom of Kongo was converted to Christianity, ukisi (a substance having characteristics of nkisi) was used to translate “holy” in the Kikongo Catechism of 1624. Continue reading
A Short History of Egypt – to about 1970
[Unknown Student, Stanford University]
See Part 1 (Chapter 9)
Chapter 15. The Arab Conquest.
Until the end of the 6th century Arabia (except for the fertile Yemen is the South) was a land of nomadic tribes, fighting with each other, trading on the caravan routes, with no semblance of political unity, and polytheistic in religion. A hundred years later these desert Arabs, unified and disciplined by the new faith preached by Mohamed, had conquered in the name of Islam Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, some of Turkestan and India, Egypt, northern Africa and Spain.
This extraordinary transformation does not seem to have been initially due to any fanatical desire to spread the new religion; in fact the Arabs made no great effort to convert the peoples they conquered. Continue reading
A BRIEF HISTORY OF EGYPT
By Arthur Goldschmidt Jr., 2008
3 PERSIAN, GREEK, ROMAN, AND ARAB RULE (525 B.C.E.–1250 C.E.)
In 525 B.C.E. Egypt ceased to be ruled by Egyptians. With very few exceptions, the head of the Egyptian state would always be a foreigner […]. For most of this time Egyptians would still serve as administrators, scribes, judges, religious leaders, and village headmen. Egypt’s subordination to the Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs, described in this chapter, set the pattern for later colonization by other outsiders. Usually the Egyptians accepted their lot, but sometimes they rebelled openly and often they subverted or influenced their foreign masters. A modern Arabic proverb sums up the popular view: Fi bilad Misr khayruha li-ghayriha (In the land of Egypt, its good things belong to others).
The year 525 was when Cambyses II, the Persian emperor, defeated the last Saite pharaoh, conquered Egypt, and established the [27th] Dynasty. The Persians, originally tribal nomads in what now is Iran, Continue reading
A statue of the final Egyptian God’s Wife of Amun at Thebes, Ankhenesneferibre (from Pinterest)
A Short History of Egypt – to about 1970
[Unknown Student, Stanford University]
Chapter 9. – The Decline of the Empire.
By 1085 B.C. the great days of Egypt were over. Except for an interlude in the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. the seven and a half centuries from 1085 B.C, to the conquest by Alexander the Great [Murderer] was a period of internal disunity and foreign Nomination.
The approximate chronology of this period is as follows
1085 – 945. Twenty first Dynasty – divided rule.
944 – 715. Twenty second to Twenty fourth Dynasties – divided rule and Libyan control.
715 – 664. Twenty fifth (Ethiopian) Dynasty.
664 – 525. Twenty sixth (Egyptian – Saite) Dynasty. Renaissance of Egyptian culture and power.
525 – 404. Twenty seventh (Persian) Dynasty.
404 – 343. Twenty eighth to Thirtieth Dynasties. Some degree of independence from Persia.
343 – 332. Thirty first (Persian) Dynasty.
332 B.C. Conquest by Alexander the [Armenian].
The Twenty first Dynasty – nobles of Tanis in the delta – strove for authority against the priests of Amun in Thebes. The Twenty second to Twenty fourth Dynasties was a further period of divided rule, during which Libyan chiefs who had been employed in the Egyptian army founded a Libyan dynasty with their capital at Bubastis in the delta. Then came the conquest of Egypt by the Kings of Cush Continue reading
An Eternal Curse upon the Reader of These Lines
Robert K. Ritner, 2003
In retribution for the ‘prying’ or ‘intrusive curiosity’ inherent in the reading of another’s words, the Argentine novelist Manuel Puig entitled a 1980 work ‘Eternal Curse on the Reader of these Pages.’ The same sentiment appears in Egyptian magic. A Coptic curse preserved in the British Museum (Oriental Ms. 5986) begins with an invocation for divine wrath directed not against its primary victims (who are later damned by name), but against the accidental discoverer:
God of heaven and earth! Whoever shall open this papyrus and read what is written in (it), may all those things written in it descend upon him.1
A counterpart is provided by the Coptic Papyrus Lichaev, which concludes a specific curse with a similar generic warning:
Whoever opens this papyrus and reads it, what is written on it will come upon him, by order of the lord god.2
Such invocations of divine hostility have their origin well before Coptic Christianity, in magical practices of Late Period Egypt that exploit the bond between the demonic and the divine. Continue reading
Nephthys – Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
Nephthys (NebtHet) is a member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology, a daughter of Nut and Geb. At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts, Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity, Set. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris, Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience, just as Isis represented the (re-)birth experience.
Nephthys is a Greek epithet, transliterated as Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, from Egyptian hieroglyphs. The literal translation of her name is usually given as “Lady of the House,” which has caused some to mistakenly identify her with the notion of a “housewife,” or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. This is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. Her name means quite specifically, “Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure” which associates her with the role of priestess. Continue reading
Preface to the First Edition
From The Kebra Nagast
by E.A. Wallis Budge (1932)i
This volume contains a complete English translation of the famous Ethiopian work, The “KEBRA NAGAST“, i.e. the “Glory of the Kings [of ETHIOPIA]”. This work has been held in peculiar honour in ABYSSINIA for several centuries, and throughout that country it has been, and still is, venerated by the people as containing the final proof of their descent from the Hebrew Patriarchs, and of the kinship of their kings of the Solomonic line with CHRIST, the Son of God.
The importance of the book, both for the kings and the people of ABYSSINIA, is clearly shown by the letter that King JOHN of ETHIOPIA wrote to the late Lord GRANVILLE in August, 1872. The king says: “There is a book called ‘Kivera Negust’ Continue reading