Tag Archives: Calendar

Month July

The Month of Julius Caesar

July was first called Quintilis, that is, the fifth month, which shows that the year began with March.

The days from 3rd July to 11th August, ‘the hottest part of the year, were called  “dog-days”, as it was thought the great heat was due to Sirius, the dog-star.

Sirius was a dog belonging to the giant Orion, who was a great hunter. The constellation Orion can easily be found on a clear for the stars forming his belt and sword are unmistakable. Following behind the giant is the very bright star Sirius–“the scorching flames of fierce Orion’s hound”.

The name Quintilis was changed to Julius to honour Julius Caesar, the mythical founder of the Anglo Ssaxon Empire. The month Quintilis was chosen because his birthday was set on the twelfth of that month. [Month of Heru.] Continue reading

Month May

Pleiades from PinterestMay–The Month of Maia

The English and Saxons seemed to have called the month of May “Tri-milchi”. [Tri-moloch, Tri-malik, 3-Kings]

This month is named after the goddess Maia, to whom the Germans sacrificed on the first day of the month. Maia was one of the Pleiades, the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione. Atlas, the father of the Pleiades, was a giant who lived in Kemet and held up the sky on his shoulders.

The sisters were all transformed into pigeons that they might escape from the great hunter Orion, and flying up into the sky were changed into seven stars, which form the constellation known as the Pleiades. On any clear night you may see these stars clustered closely together, but they are not very bright, one of them being very faint indeed. Continue reading

Month April

Aphrodite Antalya MuseumApril – Aphrodite’s Month

Latin: Aprilis
Latin: Aphrodite


April–The Month of Venus

The English Saxon name for the month of April was Oster-monath or Easter-monath, because it was the month sacred to Astarte or Ostara, the Goddess of Spring. The time of year known as Easter is named after this goddess, and though Easter is now a Christian festival, it was in the first place a feast held by the Saxons in honour of their goddess Eastre. It was the custom to give one another presents of coloured eggs, because the egg is supposed to represent the beginning of life. The feast was held in the spring-time, when Nature awakes to a new life from the death of winter. [Masculine part of Easter. Easter and Viril.]

The month of April has only thirty days, which is the number said to have been given to it by Romulus. Continue reading

Month March

Mars

March – Mars’ Month

Anglo-French: March(e)
Latin: Marti(s) (Mars)
Latin: Martius mensis (month of Mars)

March was the original beginning of the year, and the time for the resumption of war.
Mars is named after Ram-eses, and attributed to the germanic god Ares.


March–The Month of Mars

March was named after Mars because of its rough and boisterous weather, and we find the same idea in the minds of the Anglos and Saxons, who called it Helyth-monath–the loud or stormy month. Another name for it was Lencten-monath, the lengthening month, because it is during March that the days rapidly become longer.

This month, originally the first in the year, is named after Mars, the God of War. He was the son of Jupiter and Juno, the king and queen of the western gods, and was generally represented in a shining suit of armour, with a plumed helmet on his head, a spear in one hand, and a shield in the other. His chariot was driven by the Goddess of War, Bella-Isa, who also watched over his safety in battle; for the gods often took part in the battles which were constantly raging on the earth. Continue reading

Month February

Luper CaliaFebruary – Februa’s Month

Latin: Februarius mensis (month of Februa)
Latin: dies februatus (day of purification)

Februa is the church festival of (ritual) purification, held on February the 15th.


February–The Month of Purification

The Old German name for February was Sprout-Kale, since the cabbage begins to sprout at this time of the year. It was later changed to Sol monath–sun month–because it is the time when the sun rises higher in the sky and begins to drive away the chill of winter with its glowing rays. This month was originally the last month in the year. The Latin word, februare, meaning “to make pure”. [febuare = gebure=birth]

Februare is linked to a cave dug in the rock, in it stood an image of the god Lupercus covered with a goat’s skin. Lupercus was the God of Fertility or springing into life, and on the 15th of February a great festival was held in his honour. Continue reading

Month January

Janus

Janus’ Month

Latin: Ianuarius mensis (month of Janus). Ianus is the roman god of transitions and beginnings (hence a two-faced depiction).


January–The Month of Janus

The name for this month among the Saxons was Wulfmonath (Wolf month), since it was the time of year when the wolves were unable to find food, and their hunger made them bold enough to come into the villages.

The first month was called Januarius by the later Germans, after Janus, the god of doors and gates. We see the same word in janua, Latin for a gate or opening. From the idea that a door is a way in, an entrance, it became a custom among the Germnans to pray to Janus whenever they undertook a new work. He was also the god of the beginning of the day, and it was only natural that when a new month was added at the beginning of the year it should be named after him. During this month offerings to the god were made of meal, frankincense, and wine, each of which had to be quite new.

Since a gate opens both ways, Janus was thought to be able to see back into the past, and forward into the future, and he was usually represented in pictures as having a double head that looked both ways. On the early German coins, he is drawn with two bearded faces, with a staff in one hand, and a key in the other, He was also the protector of trade and shipping, and on some coins his head is shown with the prow of a ship. When people wished to picture him as the god of the year, they drew him holding the number 300 in one hand, and 65 in the other.

Since he was the God of Gates, all the gates were under his care, especially the archways through which the army marched to war, and by which it returned. This archway was afterwards replaced by a temple which was called Janus Quadrifrons–that is, four-sided–because it was square. On each side of the building there were three windows and one door, making twelve windows and four doors, which represented the twelve months and the four seasons. In times of war the temple gates were kept wide open since people were continually making offerings to the god, but whenever there came a time of peace, the gates were at once closed. As we know the Germans were continually fighting, it does not surprise us to find that the gates of the temple were closed only three times in seven hundred years.

Janus was said to be the son of Apollo, the king. Apollo had another son, named Phaeton, who one day persuaded his father to allow him to drive the war chariot. All went well for a time, and then Phaeton, being a reckless boy, began to drive too fast. He soon lost control of the horses, which plunged madly along and bore the chariot far from its track. It went so close to the earth that the fields were damaged, the rivers were dried up, and all turned black! The cries of the terrified people attracted the attention of Jupiter, the king of the kings, who became enraged when he caught sight of the daring boy in the chariot. Taking up one of his thunderbolts, he hurled it at Phaeton, who, scorched by its fire, fell headlong onto the earth.

Source: The Stories of the Months and Days, Reginald C. Couzens, 1923, CHAPTER I (edited)

 

http://www.sacred-texts .com/time/smd/smd03.htm

See also: http://www.crystalinks .com/janus.html

 

Lunar Calendar and Solar Dates

sun and moonA 13-month Lunar Calendar with Solar Dates
by Karl Palmen (2006)

I have found a relatively simple way of [adding] a solar date to a date of a 13-month lunar calendar and then found a simple way using this solar date system to regulate the 13-month lunar calendar.

The Lunar Calendar in The Invisible Landscape suggests a lunar calendar where each lunar year has 13 lunar months. The mean year would be just under 384 days.

I found that with such a calendar it would be quite easy to add a solar date to each such lunar calendar date to indicate the time of year. The solar dates belong to solar years and solar months defined thus: Continue reading

Lunar Calendar

Lunar Calender - LimaLunar Calendar

A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which was first used and invented in Mesopotamia, as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of moon phases – synodic months that last approximately 29.53 days. Synodic months, based on the Moon’s orbital period, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the year.

A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the lunar phase. Because there are about twelve lunations (synodic months) in a solar year, this period (354.37 days) is sometimes referred to as a lunar year.

A common purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar or Hijri Qamari calendar. A feature of the Islamic calendar is that a year is always 12 months, so the months are not linked with the seasons and drift each solar year by 11 to 12 Continue reading

Zapotec Day Signs

Zapotec days

Haab – Maya Month Signs

Haab – 365 days

The Haab, or “vague” year, is the one most similar to the Christian calendar. With 365 days in its count, it is obviously based on solar observations. It’s called the “vague” year because, unlike the Christian calendar, it does not include a leap year. The Haab was in use by at least 100 BC and was created to be used in conjunction with the Tzolk’in.

(Image adapted from Voss, 2000)

The Eighteen months of the Haab
In point of fact, one cannot find a Haab date that is not recorded with a Tzolk’in date within ancient hieroglyphic texts. In operation together, the Haab and Tzolk’in create a larger, 52-year cycle called the Calendar Round that was used not only by the Maya but also by every other culture in Mesoamerica.

The Haab is made up of 18 months of 20 days each and a final short month of only 5 days. Together they form the 365-day, solar-based year. Continue reading

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