THE RELIGION OF ANCIENT EGYPT
By W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, 1906
Part 1 See here
VII. THE COSMIC GODS
VIII. THE ABSTRACT GODS
IX. THE FOREIGN GODS
X. THE COSMOGONY
XI. THE RITUAL AND PRIESTHOOD
XII. THE SACRED BOOKS
XIII. PRIVATE WORSHIP
XIV. EGYPTIAN ETHICS
XV. THE INFLUENCE OF EGYPT
CHAPTER VII THE COSMIC GODS
The gods which personify the sun and sky stand apart in their essential idea from those already described, although they were largely mixed and combined with other classes of gods. So much did this mixture pervade all the later views that some writers have seen nothing but varying forms of sun-worship in Egyptian religion. It will have been noticed however in the previous chapters what a large body of theology was entirely apart from the sun-worship, while here we treat the latter as separate from the other elements with which it was more or less combined.
_Ra_ was the great sun-god, to whom every king pledged himself, by adopting on his accession a motto-title embodying the god’s name, such as _Ra-men-kau_, ‘Ra established the kas,’ Continue reading
THE RELIGION OF ANCIENT EGYPT
By W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, 1906
I. THE NATURE OF GODS1
II. THE NATURE OF MAN
III. THE FUTURE LIFE
IV. ANIMAL WORSHIP
V. THE GROUPS OF GODS. ANIMAL-HEADED GODS
VI. THE HUMAN GODS
CHAPTER I THE NATURE OF GODS
Before dealing with the special varieties of the Egyptians’ belief in gods, it is best to try to avoid a misunderstanding of their whole conception of the supernatural. The term god has come to tacitly imply to our minds such a highly specialised group of attributes, that we can hardly throw our ideas back into the more remote conceptions to which we also attach the same name. It is unfortunate that every other word for supernatural intelligences has become debased, so that we cannot well speak of demons, devils, ghosts, or fairies without implying a noxious or a trifling meaning, quite unsuited to the ancient deities that were so beneficent and powerful. If then we use the word god for such conceptions, it must always be with the reservation that the word has now a very different meaning from what it had to ancient minds. Continue reading
The Kemetic Origin of Freemasonry: The Signs and Symbols Do not Lie
By Fahim A. Knight-El, 2010 [Edited]
The signs and symbols of ancient and modern Freemasonry are rooted in Kemet (Egypt) and the evidence is overwhelmingly obvious that Freemasonry borrowed its allegorical myths and ideological metaphors from more ancient societies that were well advanced in the philosophical mysteries. (Reference: Manly P. Hall; “The Secret Teachings of All Ages”.)
It all began in Cush (Abyssinia or Ethiopia) were perhaps some of the wisest Nubians toiled and where civilization originated. Thus transmitting their enlightenment in compliment with how the Nile River flows from south to north. (Reference Sterling Means in his book titled, “Ethiopia and the Missing Link in African History” and John G. Jackson work titled, “Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization”.)
Drusilla Houston in her book titled the “Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire”, stated: Continue reading
The Prophecies of Hermes (Tehuti)
Pure philosophy is spiritual striving, through constant contemplation to attain True Knowledge of Atum the One –God. But, speaking now in prophecy, I say that in times to come, no one will pursue philosophy with single-mindedness and purity of heart. Those with a grudging and ungenerous temperament will try and prevent men discovering the priceless gift of immortality. Philosophy [Spirituality] will become confused, making it hard to comprehend. It will be corrupted by spurious speculation. It will be entangled with bewildering sciences like arithmetic, music and geometry.
The student of pure philosophy studies the sciences not as fanciful theories, but as devotion to Atum – because they reveal a universe perfectly ordered by the power of number; because measuring the depth of the sea and forces of fire and magnitude of physical things leads to a reverent awe at the Creator’s skill and wisdom; because the mysteries of music bear witness to the unsurpassed talent of the Supreme Artist who has beautifully harmonized all things into a single Whole, suffused with sweet melodies. Continue reading
By J. Hill
Tehuti (Thoth, Djehuty, Tahuti, Tetu) was one of the earlier Egyptian gods. He was popular throughout Egypt, but was particularly venerated in Khnum (Hermopolis Magna) where he was worshipped as part of the Ogdoad. As the power of his cult grew, the myth was rewritten to make Tehuti the creator god. According to this variant, Tehuti (with His head in the form of an ibis, one of his sacred animals) laid an egg from which Ra (Atum, Nefertum, or khepri) was born.
Other myths suggest that Tehuti created himself through the power of language (in an interesting parallel to the phrase in the Gospel according to St John “in the beginning was the word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God”). His song was thought to have created eight deities of the Ogdoad (the gods Nun, Heh, Kuk and Amun and the goddesses Nunet, Hauhet, Kuaket and Amaunet).
The moon and the sun were initially thought of as the left and right eyes of Heru (Horus). Continue reading
A very well known image of Tehuti, the ibis headed Black man.
Name in Medu Neter
Major spiritual center: Khmun
Symbol: The papyrus scroll
Parents: None, thought to be self created, around the same time as Ma’at
Consort: Ma’at, Seshat
Tehuti (also Djehuti), the lord of Khemmenu, self created, to whom non had given birth, is the Neter responsible for teaching the world to write and record information with the Medu Neter system. From many Funerary texts, it’s known that Tehuti was the Neter of all the arts and sciences, that he was the “lord of books,” and the “scribe of the Neteru”, and “Mighty in speech”.
From the Pyramid Texts it’s known that Tehuti was in service to deceased kings. His service was eagerly awaited by the by the souls waiting to join the realm of the Ancestors. People waited for him because it was with him that Ma’at weighed their heart against their past actions. Continue reading
Heh and Hauhet, Deities of Infinity and Eternity
By Caroline Seawright
The ancient Egyptians [KMT] believed that before the world was formed, there was a watery mass of dark, directionless chaos. In this chaos lived the Ogdoad of Khmunu (Hermopolis), four frog gods and four snake goddesses of chaos. These deities were Nun and Naunet (water), Amun and Amaunet (invisibility), Heh and Hauhet (infinity) and Kek and Kauket (darkness).
The water stretched infinitely off in all directions, as ever lasting as time itself. Heh and Hauhet came to symbolise infinity. After time began, Heh and Hauhet came to symbolise limitless time, and long life.
The frog or human headed god Heh (Huh) was one of the original eight gods of the Ogdoad of Khmunu Continue reading
In the Qur’an, [there are] three words to describe our hearts: qalb, fu‘ad and sadr. We know that every Arabic word is chosen for a reason, yet all three of these words for the most part are translated as “heart.” As usual, the intricate meanings of these words are not captured in the translation.
So, what is their difference?
Qalb is the general word for heart. It comes from the root which means something that turns around and about and upside down. It is the nature of hearts that they are constantly changing, this is the normal state of our hearts. When ta’ala refers to eman and diseases of the heart, qalb is used.
Fu’ad is from the verb fa’ada meaning burning or a flame. Continue reading
By Casandra Birrell
Ptah [pronounced “Tar”] was the creator of the world and he gave life to the gods. Ptah is usually shown in a mummified form with a skull cap.
Ptah was part of the divide triad of gods at Memphis, together with Sekhmet ‘the beloved of Ptah’, (the goddess often identified with HetHeru and Auset) and their son Nefertem who was the god of the blue lotus.
As the sovereign god of the capital city of Memphis, Ptah was also the protector of artisans and artists but little is known about him until the 19th Dynasty (c1300) when Seti I and Ramses II both held him in devotion. Indeed, one of the 4 divisions who fought for Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh was named “Ptah”.
However, the djed pillar popularly associated with Ausar (Osiris) had its roots in the Memphis god of creation for Ptah was termed the ‘Noble djed’. Not only was he a symbol of stability, Ptah was also the symbol of fertility as the sacred Apis bull of Memphis.
With Memphis as the natural centre of a unified Egypt, Ptah was its source, and all other gods were derivatives of him. He was Ptah, the first father of the gods and humankind. The sacred name of Continue reading
Top 20 Arithmetic Progression of Primes
by Chris Caldwell
The Prime Pages keeps a list of the 5000 largest known primes, plus a few each of certain selected archivable forms and classes. These forms are defined in this collection’s home page. This page is about one of those forms.
Definitions and Notes
Are there infinitely many primes in most arithmetic progressions? Certainly not if the common difference has a prime factor in common with one of the terms (for example: 6, 9, 12, 15, …). In 1837, Dirichlet proved that in all other cases the answer was yes:
- Dirichlet’s Theorem on Primes in Arithmetic Progressions
- If a and b are relatively prime positive integers, then the arithmetic progression a, a+b, a+2b, a+3b, … contains infinitely many primes.