Category Archives: Language

Mountain and Caves

Grain in the mountain hieroglyph shape Mountain

Mountain (djew)

The hieroglyphic sign for “mountain” depicted to peaks with a valley running between them. This image approximated the hills that rose up on either side of the Nile valley.

Although the djew hieroglyph did portray the mountain ranges the Egyptians saw in their everyday lives, it also was a visualization of their cosmic beliefs. Symbolically, the “mountain” was an image of the universal mountain whose two peaks were imagined to hold up the sky. The eastern peak was called Bakhu, to the west was Manu. The ends of this great mountain were guarded by two lions who were called Aker. Aker was a protector of the the sun as it rose and set each day. Continue reading

Arithmetic Progression of Primes

Why are there infinitely many prime numbers?Top 20 Arithmetic Progression of Primes

by Chris Caldwell

The Prime Pages keeps a list of the 5000 largest known primes, plus a few each of certain selected archivable forms and classes. These forms are defined in this collection’s home page. This page is about one of those forms.

Definitions and Notes

Are there infinitely many primes in most arithmetic progressions?  Certainly not if the common difference has a prime factor in common with one of the terms (for example: 6, 9, 12, 15, …).  In 1837, Dirichlet proved that in all other cases the answer was yes:

Dirichlet’s Theorem on Primes in Arithmetic Progressions
If a and b are relatively prime positive integers, then the arithmetic progression a, a+b, a+2b, a+3b, … contains infinitely many primes.

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Prime Arithmetic Progression

Prime Phyllotaxis Spirals | Maxwell's DemonPrime Arithmetic Progression

By MathWorld

An arithmetic progression of primes is a set of primes of the form p_1+kd for fixed p_1 and d and consecutive k, i.e., {p_1,p_1+d,p_1+2d,...}. For example, 199, 409, 619, 829, 1039, 1249, 1459, 1669, 1879, 2089 is a 10-term arithmetic progression of primes with difference 210.

It had long been conjectured that there exist arbitrarily long sequences of primes in arithmetic progression (Guy 1994). As early as 1770, Lagrange and Waring investigated how large the common difference of an arithmetic progression of n primes must be. In 1923, Hardy and Littlewood (1923) made a very general conjecture known as the k-tuple conjecture about the distribution of prime constellations, which includes the hypothesis that there exist infinitely long prime arithmetic progressions as a special case. Important additional theoretical progress was subsequently made by van der Corput (1939), who proved than there are infinitely many triples of primes in arithmetic progression, and Heath-Brown (1981), who proved that there are infinitely many four-term progressions consisting of three primes and a number that is either a prime or semiprime. Continue reading

Loa Veve

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M-W of Adinkra Symbols

Adinkra Index



mate masieMATE MASIE -“what I hear, I keep” wisdom, knowledge, prudence
Ntesi-Matemasi symbolizes wisdom and knowledge. “Nyasa bun mu nne mate masie masie.”

me ware woME WARE WO -“I shall marry you” commitment, perseverance Continue reading

F-K of Adinkra Symbols

Adinkra Symbols

Tradition has it that Adinkra, a famous king of Gyaman (now part of Cote d’Ivoire) angered the Asantehene, Bonsu-Panyin, by trying to copy the Golden Stool. Adinkra was defeated and slain in an ensuing war. It has been suggested that the art of adinkra came from Gyaman. It is also significant that adinkra means farewell, or good-bye, hence the use of the special cloth on funeral occasions (eyie), to say good-bye to the departed.

Adinkra aduru (adinkra medicine) is the stuff used in the stamping process. It is prepared by boiling the bark of badie together with iron slag. Originally the printing was done on a cotton piece lying on the ground. Today, raised platforms with sack coverings act as the printing table. The designs, cut on pieces of calabash with pieces of wood attached for handling, are dipped into the adinkera aduru, then stamped onto the cloth. Adinkra cloth is not meant Continue reading

A-E of Adinkra Symbols

Adinkra Cloth from

African Symbols: Adinkra

The Adinkra symbols were originally designed by “Asante” Craftsment of Ghana, West Africa.

The symbols embody non-verbal communicative and aesthetic values, as well as the way of life of the people who designed them.

The symbols are usually printed on cotton fabric to produce “Adinkra cloths,” which may be worn on such celebrative occasions as child naming, community durbars and funerary rituals.

Each of the symbols has its Asante name and an accompanying literal English translation.


ADINKRAHENE – “chief of adinkra symbols” greatness, charisma, leadership
This symbol is said to have played an inspiring role in the designing of other symbols. it signifies the importance of playing a leadership role.
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Sick Lamb and Twin

melencolia by Albrecht Durer
Melencolia symbol I

There’s No Melancholy in Melencolia – One Secret of Greatest Art Fraud in Art History
By Elizabeth Garner, 2013

This engraving is [Albrecht] Dürer’s greatest masterpiece.  It is the most debated image in the history of art, and tens of thousands of scholarly articles have been written about its supposed meaning, none of which are correct to date. Continue reading

Aboriginal Spirituality

Aboriginal Spirituality
Transcript of a Talk on Aboriginal Spirituality, to the Swedenberg church group in Ainslie, Canberra, 2004
By Steven Guth

One of the things about Aborigines – that people don’t seem to realize – is that there were lots of languages, quite different languages around Australia. This was because each language reflected the energy, the music, the wind, the sound and the feeling of the place where people lived.

I know a little German, so I’ll say, “Guten Morgen” and Katherine here, can say “……..” in Chinese. Now you can hear there is a very different tonal quality in that … the Guten Morgen is heavily onto the earth, Continue reading

Reading Hieroglyphs

Special thanks to Neferkiki for this wonderful introduction

So you want to write like an Egyptian, huh? Well it took several years for aspiring scribes to learn how to do it, so for the sake of time we’ll just cover the basics.

Hieroglyphic writing is phonetic…

That means symbols stand for certain sounds (unlike the English alphabet where some letters have many sounds or can be silent). Let’s start out with an example, the word freight. While the F, R, and T sound the “normal” way, the G and H are silent and the E and I make one sound (long A). There are 7 letters in the word, but only 4 sounds (F, R, long A, and T) are heard. So to spell freight with hieroglyphs, you’d use the symbols for those 4 sounds: Continue reading

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