Heh and Hauhet, Deities of Infinity and Eternity
By Caroline Seawright
The ancient Egyptians [KMT] believed that before the world was formed, there was a watery mass of dark, directionless chaos. In this chaos lived the Ogdoad of Khmunu (Hermopolis), four frog gods and four snake goddesses of chaos. These deities were Nun and Naunet (water), Amun and Amaunet (invisibility), Heh and Hauhet (infinity) and Kek and Kauket (darkness).
The water stretched infinitely off in all directions, as ever lasting as time itself. Heh and Hauhet came to symbolise infinity. After time began, Heh and Hauhet came to symbolise limitless time, and long life.
The frog or human headed god Heh (Huh) was one of the original eight gods of the Ogdoad of Khmunu Continue reading
BASIC PRINCIPLES of non-contact temperature measurement
By Optris 
1. Physical principles
2. Emissivity and temperature measurement
3. Optics, sighting techniques and electronics
4. Infrared thermometers and applications
5. Infrared cameras and applications
- Physical principles
With our eyes we see the world in visible light. Although visible light makes up only a small part of the radiation spectrum, the invisible light covers most of the remaining spectral range. The radiation of invisible light carries much more additional information.
Discovery of the infrared radiation
Searching for new optical material, William Herschel accidentally rediscovered the infrared radiation in 1800. He blackened the tip of a sensitive mercury thermometer and used it as measuring system to test the heating properties of different colors of the spectrum, which were directed to a tabletop by having beams of light shine through a glass prism. With this, he tested the heating of different colors of the Continue reading
A thermographic camera (infrared camera or thermal imaging camera) is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light. Instead of the 400–700 nanometre range of the visible light camera, infrared cameras operate in wavelengths as long as 14,000 nm (14 µm). Their use is called thermography.
Theory of operation
Infrared energy is just one part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which encompasses radiation from gamma rays, x-rays, ultra violet, a thin region of visible light, infrared, terahertz waves, microwaves, and radio waves. These are all related and differentiated in the length of their wave (wavelength). All objects emit a certain amount of black body radiation as a function of their temperatures.
Generally speaking, the higher an object’s temperature, the more infrared radiation is emitted as black-body radiation. A special camera can detect this radiation in a way similar to the way an ordinary Continue reading
Reef on the brink
The Great Barrier Reef: a catastrophe laid bare
By Michael Slezak, 7 June 2016
Australia’s natural wonder is in mortal danger. Bleaching caused by climate change has killed almost a quarter of its coral this year and many scientists believe it could be too late for the rest. Using exclusive photographs and new data, a Guardian special report investigates how the reef has been devastated – and what can be done to save it
It was the smell that really got to diver Richard Vevers. The smell of death on the reef. “I can’t even tell you how bad I smelt after the dive – the smell of millions of rotting animals.” Continue reading
Quantum Dots: Applications for Artificial Atoms Expanding
By Lynn Savage, Feb 2011
Quantum dots, also known as semiconductor artificial atoms, have existed for several years now, and their use keeps on expanding. Primarily used as substitutes for dyes in fluorescence imaging, their propensity for being highly tunable emitters that resist photobleaching represents only a small fraction of their benefits.
Commonly but not always comprising cores of cadmium selenide with a coating of zinc sulfide, quantum dots are perhaps best known for the tunability of their emission wavelength, once excited by an external light source: Change the size of the particle, get a specific wavelength in return. Early research into the properties and potential uses for quantum dots kept them in solutions, and then later brought into proximity with a variety of other particles. This led to their nearly ubiquitous use as donors in Förster’s resonance energy transfer (FRET), a renowned method for near-diffraction-limit imaging of cells and other subjects. Continue reading