Male Nkisi Figure with Strips of Hide, held at the Brooklyn Museum, CC
Nkisi (plural minkisi, zinkisi or nkisi [n- concords with mi-] according to dialect). The term nkisi is the general name for a a spirit, or for any object that spirit inhabits. It is frequently applied to a variety of objects used throughout the Congo Basin in Central Africa thought to contain spiritual powers or spirits. The term and its concept have passed with the enslavement of Africans into the Americas, especially South America (in Palo Mayombe the spirits of nkisi are often called “[…]”).
The current meaning of the term derives from the root, *-kitį- referring to a spiritual entity, or material objects in which it is manifested or inhabits in Proto-Njila, an ancient subdivision of the Bantu language family.
In its earliest attestations in Kikongo dialects in the early seventeenth century it was spelled “mokissie” (in Dutch), as the mu- prefix in this noun class were still pronounced, and was reported by Dutch visitors to Loango as referring both to a material item and the spiritual entity that inhabits it. In the sixteenth century, when the Kingdom of Kongo was converted to Christianity, ukisi (a substance having characteristics of nkisi) was used to translate “holy” in the Kikongo Catechism of 1624. Continue reading
Our Lady of Guadalupe, Patroness of the Church Militant
By Rev. Thomas J. Euteneuer, Human Life International e-Newsletter, 2007
“The words I spoke to you are spirit and life.” (Jn 6:63)
The apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe which occurred in Mexico in 1531 were an evangelization experience unsurpassed in all of Church history with the possible exception of the Day of Pentecost. December 12th marks the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe, who I believe can be titled, Patroness of the Church Militant. I say this because, in that experience, She brought together all of the elements of a spiritual army that conquered what was then a total culture of death; if She could overcome the evil forces that directed the massacre of thousands of innocent human beings in 16th Century Mexico, we can be assured that She can repeat that victory for our modern day culture of death and dethrone the abortion demon from his altar of sacrifice. Continue reading
The All-Seeing Eye: Sacred Origins of a Hijacked Symbol
By The Mind Unleashed, August 11 2014
The all-seeing eye is a powerful esoteric symbol which is widely misunderstood and misused today; few know what it originally stood for. It was originally symbolic of a higher spiritual power or God, a watchful caretaker of humanity or an awakened spiritual part within. But these days it has quite different associations.
Today the all-seeing eye is more likely to be seen as an “Illuminati” symbol of control and surveillance by elites who to a large degree run the show on this planet at this time. This is because, over time, dark sinister forces have taken over esoteric symbols that for thousands of years were used to convey Continue reading
Sacred Valley and Cuzco Peru (Cusco)
From Peru Travel Adventures
The Sacred Valley of the Incas, is actually the Vilcanota/Urubamba River valley. It is located about 10 miles north of Cuzco Peru, and extends northwest through Pisac and Ollantaytambo. This entire region, highlighted by Cuzco, was the heart of the Inca civilization from the 14th to the 15th centuries. In reflection, there are numerous impressive ruins. Many of the villagers in this valley today live life much the same as they did prior to the Spanish Conquest in 1532. Continue reading
Quetzalcoatl – Codex Telleriano
Quetzalcoatl (ket-sal-ko-a-tel) is a Meso-american deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and has the meaning of “feather-serpent”.
The worship of a feathered serpent deity is first documented in Teotihuacan in the Late Preclassic through the Early Classic period (400 BCE – 600CE) of Meso-american chronology – whereafter it appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic (600 – 900 CE) (Ringle et al.).
In the Postclassic period (900 – 1519 CE) the Continue reading
Blood Moons and Prophecy
By COGwriter, 2013
What is a blood moon?
A blood moon is also called a Hunter’s Moon. It is the first full moon after Harvest Moon. The Harvest Moon is the full moon nearest to the autumnal equinox.
Basically the general definition of a ‘blood moon’ is when the moon appears reddish because of how light can appear. Lunar eclipses are not the only cause. Notice the following: Continue reading
Caste War of Yucatán
The Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán, Mexico against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region.
A lengthy war ensued between the Yucateco forces in the north-west of the Yucatán and the independent Maya in the south-east. It officially ended with the occupation of the Maya capital of Chan Santa Cruz by the Mexican army in 1901, although skirmishes with villages and small settlements that refused to acknowledge Mexican control Continue reading
The Mayan Class Structure
The social structure of ancient Mayan society
By Xolotl Huascar, 2002
The Mayan social stratification was very tightly knit into a multi-layered structure. It seemed to have incorporated the caste system, which meant that membership was hereditary and difficult to change caste. However, there were others who had more freedom and were able to freely move among the communities.
The top of the society was large and complex, consisting of the ruler, his family, their retainers, Continue reading
The term Five Suns in the context of creation myths, describes the doctrine of the Aztec and other Nahua peoples in which the present world was preceded by four other cycles of creation and destruction. It is primarily derived from the mythological, cosmological and eschatological beliefs and traditions of earlier cultures from central Mexico and the Meso-american region in general. The Late Postclassic Aztec society inherited many traditions concerning Meso-american creation accounts, while however modifying some aspects and supplying novel interpretations of their own. Continue reading
OLMEC ART AT DUMBARTON OAKS
Pre-Columbian Art at Dumbarton Oaks, No. 2
by Karl A. Taube, 2004 (Edited)
See part 1
The Olmec of Early Formative San Lorenzo
San Lorenzo, Veracruz, appears to have been the preeminent Early Formative Olmec center.
The Ojochi phase (1500–1350 B.C.) marks the earliest pottery at San Lorenzo, and is roughly contemporaneous with the Mokaya Barra phase ceramics, of which it shares many traits (Blake et al. 1995: 168).
The nearby site of El Manatí reveals that, by the Ojochi phase, elaborate rites concerning water, rain, and, likely, agriculture were already being performed in the Olmec heartland. A freshwater spring at the base of Cerro Manatí was a locus of ritual activity that included the deposition of offerings in the water during much of the Early Formative period. Among the earliest items placed in the sacred spring were fine jadeite celts and rubber balls (Ortíz and Rodríguez 1994: 78, 86; 2000). Continue reading