THE ERINYES were three netherworld goddesses who avenged crimes against the natural order. They were particularly concerned with homicide, unfilial conduct, crimes against the gods, and perjury. A victim seeking justice could call down the curse of the Erinys upon the criminal. The most powerful of these was the curse of the parent upon the child–for the Erinyes were born of just such a crime, being sprung from the blood of Ouranos, when he was castrated by his son Kronos.
The wrath of the Erinyes manifested itself in a number of ways. The most severe of these was the tormenting madness inflicted upon a patricide or matricide. Murderers might suffer illness or disease; and a nation harbouring such a criminal, could Continue reading
The study of celestial objects is an ancient one. Knowledge of the sun, moon, and stars, and their associated mythology, was passed from generation to generation but few conclusive records of prehistoric observations survive.
Constellations were part of the historical record in Mesopotamian culture around 4000 B.C. In the 8th century B.C. Homer mentioned a few now familiar constellations in his epic poem, the Odyssey. Four hundred years later Eudoxus of Cnidus wrote about 43 constellations (or 45 or 48 depending on one’s interpretation) which survive today. Eudoxus’ original work was lost but his ideas were kept alive by Aratus in a poem called Phaenomena (circa 270 B.C.). Continue reading
By Michael Dawson
The river of which many know its name, without knowing its origin or what it really stood for. A river that separates the world of the living from the world of the dead. Styx it is said winds around Hades (hell or the underworld are other names) nine times. Its name comes from the Greek word stugein which means hate, Styx, the river of hate. This river was so respected by the gods of Greek mythology that they would take life binding oaths just by mentioning its name, as referenced in the story of Bacchus-Ariadne, where Jove “confirms it with the irrevocable oath, attesting the river Styx.”
There are five rivers that separate Hades from the world of the living, they are: Continue reading
From Theoi Project
STYX was the goddess of the underworld River Styx, one of the Titan generation of Okeanides. Styx was also the personified Daimon (Spirit) of hatred (stygos). She was a firm ally of Zeus in the Titan Wars, who brought her children Nike (Victory), Zelos (Rivalry), Bia (Force) and Kratos (Strength) to stand alongside the god. Zeus rewarded her by making her streams the agent of the binding oath of the gods.
The River Styx was also a corrosive Arkadian stream, which allegedly flowed forth from the underworld.
Styx was sometimes identified with several other chthonian goddesses, including Demeter Erinys the wrathful earth, the oath-protecting Eumenides, and Nyx the darkness of night.
PARENTS Continue reading
The Styx (Ancient Greek: Στύξ [stýkʰs], “Hate, Detest”) is a river in Greek mythology that formed the boundary between Earth and the Underworld (Hades). The variant spelling Stix was sometimes used in translations of Classical Greek before the 20th century. By metonymy, the adjective stygian came to refer to anything dark, dismal, and murky.
The rivers Styx, Phlegethon, Acheron, Lethe, and Cocytus all converge at the center of the underworld on a great marsh, which is also sometimes called the Styx. According to Herodotus the river Styx originates near Feneos. Continue reading
In Greek mythology the Erinyes (Greek: Ἐρῑνύες, plural of Ἐρῑνύς, Erinys), also known as Furies, were female deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as “infernal goddesses”. An oath in the Iliad invokes them as “those who beneath the earth punish whosoever has sworn a false oath”. They correspond to the Dirae in Roman mythology, and some suppose that they are called Furies in hell, Harpies on earth, and Dirae in heaven.
According to Hesiod’s Theogony, when the Titan Cronus castrated his father Uranus and threw his genitalia into the sea, the Erinyes as well as the Meliae emerged from the drops of blood when it fell on the earth (Gaia), while Aphrodite was born from the crests of sea foam. Continue reading
From Theoi Project
EPIMETHEUS [Επιμηθευς] was the Titan god of afterthought, the father of excuses. He and his brother Prometheus were given the task of populating the earth with animals and men. However, Epimetheus quickly exhausted the supply of gifts allotted for the task in the equipment of animals, leaving Prometheus’ masterpiece, mankind, completely helpless. As a result the Titan brother was forced to steal fire from heaven to arm Continue reading