Papyrus of Nas-Khem – 2


See Part 1

[p.14] ‘They live in its joy, turning him from the Nu or Firmament; he has made their food, he has gone round in the waters, making the transformations of his existence and soul; the Osirian prophet of Amen-Ra, Nas-khem.’(?)

2. The upper division of this page is divided into sections; to the left a seated goddess called Hesi Tat; two eyes, a lion called the ‘roaring monster;’ three crooks, having uraei above them, called ‘suspenders of heads’ or ‘hours;’ three other crooks, three crooks with lower crowns and with upper crown, called ‘Peace of the gods;’ two seated gods, and a goddess wearing the crown of the upper world or heaven, entitled Hanbi, ‘Fountain,’ ‘Water;’ an ape-headed god called Mat-mat, a hawk-headed deity named Bataenratf, a hawk-headed called Har khent matf, a goddess called Ra am hat nefen, a goddess in the lower crown, called Hesi mehi, all seated, and a deity seated on a throne called Hetp khent hat, ‘the peace indwelling in the heart.’ This section is divided from the other half by a couple of perpendicular lines which refer to it, reading—’the roaring bull in the Empyreal gate …. peace, the gods are in peace.

The form is that of Isis …. with the arm.’ The text above the representations of this scene is exceedingly obscure; it may read,— ‘Give thou them their death, they taste their death (?) they are in the heaven, the accusers are standing at their arms. Tie has given life to thee ….. ye your drink from the river, (?) from the many-faced; he has multiplied the number of kings (?) in the Empyreal gate. Oh ye who behold the joy of the lips of that great god of the Empyreal gate, let the gods rest in their rest, taking their food. Prevail ye (gods) by the power of your food; he gives a place on the waters, he flows in the Empyreal region, that god prevails as those of the gate have done, he ….. by the mystic names.’

The division separated from this has in the centre three square upright chests with arched covers or lids beneath. In the first is a sword and a human head, behind it stands a serpent erect upon its

[p.15] tail, called Ka en sat, ‘Long Flame.’ The abode itself is called the ‘Abode of Stupefactions’ (temt). The second abode has the symbol sem, ‘form,’ or passage, and the ribs or middle part. It is called the abode ‘leading to Kar,’ or the ‘Region of Strife.’ The serpent behind it is called ‘Taker with his tongue.’ The third abode has the hind quarters of an animal in the lower portion, and the Sun above; it is entitled ‘the Abode of Adoration.’ The serpent behind is entitled ‘Taker with his face.’ In front of these abodes is a goddess called Sbau, ‘the Adorer, guardian of the abodes of the Empyreal gate, giving her arms to him for ever!’ Behind the abodes stand two gods, the first, ‘The great taker of the gods,’ holds a crook and sceptre; the second, who personifies light, looks on with pendent arms. The text of this portion is obscure like the preceding. It may read as follows, but the translation is very difficult:—

‘The darkness on earth … the region of the Empyreal gate, he has given light in its waters from the boat. The Osirian prophet of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, Nas-khem, justified to the gods of the gate …. their night at his word when that god adores, giving blows, or words, born in the water in the river… he unites his limbs …. the darkness to light? (at) that mystic passage, not any joy? in your faces … the gods of the Empyreal region roar for ever.’

This jargon has in fact been written by a dishonest or ignorant scribe, who has taken here and there a word or expression out of the usual texts, and placed them together without their connecting links or expressions, so that the whole is only intelligible by a careful comparison with the text of Nekht-her-hebi, in which can be traced the speeches of the gods of this region or orbit.9

3rd division. This, like most of the lower division, is much mutilated. At the right side is a deity standing, facing a series of deities who are seated, like those in the upper section. Those

[p.16] remaining are A …. i and Rat, two human deities; two others, one of whom is named Han hani, and two crocodile-headed deities, one named Nu, or the Firmament, and the other Sebak. The text of this portion is corrupt and obscure. in his stream, the Nu has embraced their gods, the

‘gods of the Empyreal gate … for ever….. the gods have appointed his name—the Osirian prophet of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, Nas-khem, son of the lady of the house, Tahesi; he has in the … he has … the waters (?) … in heaven. What he has done has been done in the gate of the Empyreal gateway. They have said … with the Sun that great god, the gods (?) in his waters, in the waters of the … with his hands the Osirian prophet of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, Nas-khem, justified, [son of the lady of the] house, assistant priestess of Amen-Ra, Tahesi, justified, he is taking [his] enemies … the gods of … what he has done in his Empyreal gate, not placing the feet at their …. giving … in the Nu … their ….’

The whole of this text is obscure, corrupt, and scarcely intelligible, and it is scarcely possible to do more than give a conjectural meaning of portions of the lines.

IV. Page. Entrance of the Sun into another hour of the night. The god appears in his form of Ra, covered by the uraeus, mahn, and adored by the deceased—the gods Sa and Ap-heru are in the front, Harhek, Ka ma, the husband of Truth or the Bull of the West, probably a form of Thoth and the steerman of the boat behind. The boat terminates in a snake’s head at the prow and stern, and is towed by six female and six male deities. The rope they hold in their hands passes over a mound on which is a human head. This is called ‘Af who is over the mound.’ A scarabaeus descends from above to the head—the inscriptions state ‘that god stands above them he has … terrified at his being as a scarab in his place.’ The boat is preceded by ‘Isis of the West,’ followed by a deity

[p.17] holding a mace,10 a hawk-headed god holding a sceptre,11 and two other gods who hold. staves.12 The goddesses are called ‘the living goddesses,’ the gods ‘the gods of Hades,’…..13 ‘They are full of the joy of going to that place.’ The text of this portion presents the same difficulty, and is as obscure as the others of this Papyrus, and it is impossible to give more than a very conjectural meaning of parts.

‘The soul prevails in it, he has made his dwelling in that place,(?) he has placed his arms in it, in the body of its orbits. We come (?) to the mound? of that house (?) Thy feet are not turned away from his house in the Empyreal gate for ever in peace; that god is in the mound (shai) of the gate of the Empyreal region as the other great god; darkness …..he has … the Osirian prophet of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, Nas-khem, justified, son of the lady of the House, Tahesi, justified to the gods of the Empyreal gate. The Sun transforms in the west in peace, throughout all the place of the transformation of … he has entered the Tasr in … he made … when that great god transformed, making his good hour in their houses, living for ever, he spoke in …’

2. The upper or second division of this page represents the following mystical scenes: a goddess holding a smaller figure by her hair. Before her is ‘She who lives off the blood [of the dead. terrors] (?) preparing [the fire of the gods?].’ Behind her is a god called Ba paf, and a god holding a lituus in each hand, and turning his head back, called Ptah-s … u, and is a form of ‘Ptah;’ then a god wearing a feather, called a ‘Bringer of Truth;’ a god having a cord or inverted horns on his head called Hant, ‘Horned;‘14 these are followed by an ox-headed deity entitled ‘the consumer of the

[p.18] Bodies of the dead in fire;’ a lion or ape-headed god called Seni or ‘Terror;‘ and another god called ‘The peace’ or ‘Rest of the gods.’ Before these gods is a line of hieroglyphs, reading ‘Standing upon earth in the houses …. in the gate “or among them daily”(?)’ After these is a two-headed snake,15 carrying a symbol of life in its mouth, crawling to the omphalos, on which are two hawks, symbols of Isis and Nephthys. ‘The Scarabaeus in the gate of the heaven and all about; he has led them to the abode of the god of their house,’ appears to be the meaning of the inscription above it. This is followed by the cone or omphalos with two hawks, Anepu or Anubis, ‘Adoring;’ another god, hawk- headed, called the one who is a ‘soul and life;’ another hawk-headed god called ‘Life,’ and two other gods.16 An inscription before them states that they are ‘the drowned in the waters plunged in the water before the Boat.’

Behind these representations are nine hatchets, hieroglyphs of the word god, the first surmounted by the Teshr or ‘Red Cap,’ the last by the hut or ‘Upper Crown;’ the first is called the ‘North,’ the last the ‘South:’ they represent the hatchets, or gods, Khepera, the ‘Creator,’ Shu and Tefnu, Seb and Nu, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys and Horus.17 Behind them is the goddess Truth, or the West, stretching forth her arms. Above these is an unintelligible line of which can only be made out …’who are in this picture.’ Before Truth is ‘The image of repose.’ Above this scene is a very obscure text, some of which may possibly be read, referring to the passage of the Sun through the celestial waters and the gods in it: ‘As ye are plunged in these waters, tell me the place of the Osirian prophet of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, Nas-khem, justified, son of the priestess of Amen-Ra, Ta-hesi, justified in the orbit of the god in the gate, within it, he has been placed above amongst them for ever, not … divine food (?) in thy name.


‘He is in the water, placed in his pool, says Hapi, [the Nile] in his good name the night [of being?] at the place of the waters the Osirian prophet of Amen-Ha, king of the gods, Nas-khem, son of Ta-hesi, justified to … hen thou hast given the place of … on that night … in the heaven . …. days under the pool of the North the water of the Empyreal gate …. the spirits of the lord of his house, the waters has been in that he has … in the waters … the Osirian prophet of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, Nas-khem, son of Ta-hesi, justified to the gods, he has … the waters of that god (who) inundates the place of the lord of his house at the orbit of that god, who has given them food at the waters of the North.’

The two lines above the figures are equally obscure and unintelligible. They appear to be a transcript of the text above this scene of this hour of the night, on the coffin of Gu-her, made by an ignorant scribe.18 It appears, as most of these texts, to read retrograde, and ends—

‘……. it has been done so as this passage, which is in the pictures in the hidden place of the Empyreal gate at the South of the hidden place; it knows where his soul rests, it rests in the place of Socharis; has not smitten [the bruiser of his body].’

In the 3rd or Lower division, there is a door at each end in the division, certain basins and other objects, and a passage. At the left end is a passage, inscribed ‘The road of the secret waters, leading that god to his house.’ Below is a serpent, carrying four heads with fire placed upon them, called ‘the flaming heads.’ The horizontal line above them says, ‘they are at that god burning,’ or ‘fiery-faced.’ In the centre is an oval basin, supported by the forepart of two sphinxes; the representation in the centre of the oval is much destroyed, but seems to consist of a man holding the prow of the ark of the god Socharis, a form of Ptah standing on a double-headed snake. The one is called

[p.20] ‘Socharis,’ the other ‘the Mystical vipers.’ The same is repeated in another form on the rim of the basin or pool. The snake is called ‘the living creature with two heads,’—’he has made his passage.’ This followed by a large snake called Ankh-em-na, ‘Living off fire.’ After this is part of a snake or crocodile, over an abode on which is written ‘At, the god in the closed abode;’ and at the end is a door and passage, at which is a snake and an inscription, ‘Lives the god …’

The text, like the preceding, is corrupt and obscure; a portion of it appears to read,—

‘…… after …when he passes them in all the places of the Empyreal region … living by the flame of his mouth … when that great god is elevated he speaks … his feet in the corner of the great god … good in the Southern pool of the great god, seeing (?) the heads of the good god (?) the limbs of men (?) ….. he elevates thee (!) in thy limbs in the Empyreal gate for ever …. that god he is engendered, and proceeds from the night.’

V. Page. Centre division. The Boat of the god Ra under a canopy, ram-headed and disked, holding a sceptre adored by the deceased, having in his boat Ap-heru, Kfa-ur, Harkek, Kama or Ka Ement, Nahsi, Khu, or ‘the Steerer,’ hawk-headed; the boat is towed along by four men whose names are Tun, ‘Revolt,’ Her un, ‘Lord of Tranquillity,’ Ar neif rut, ‘Creator of Men,’ Shta, ‘Mystery.’ The inscription reads,—

‘That great god is towed along in this picture by the … of his boat; they pass him along that mystic road, he is invisible, or “he does not see their passage when they pass,” or listen to them. The Osirian Nas-khem goes along this secret road of the Empyreal gate.’

In the second section of this division is the reception of the Symbolic Eye, called ‘Socharis’ by Horus, called ‘Length,’ and Thoth, called ‘Breadth.’ Behind the eye is a crook called ‘the Birth of the living Osiris;’ behind is Osiris with a lint or cap of

[p.21] Upper Egypt, and counterpoise. On the other side are three deities facing, named Hut, Har tebf, and Hut, with snakes’ heads, the white crown; and these have facing them three male and five female deities, holding the emblem of life, called Sem ankh, ‘Passer of Life,’ Ut hutu, ‘Issuer of commands;’ Neb ankh, ‘Mistress of life.’ The text appears to read,—‘Those who are in this picture, they pass the hidden… [gate?]…. of the roads in that private road of the Amenti (?) The Osirian prophet of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, Nas-khem, justified …’

2. Upper division in two sections. In the first is Neith standing, with the inscription ‘She gives light to the gate;’ then a human-headed winged snake on four legs, called ‘the chief watchers of the roads, he guards that road, he has not gone to the throne daily.’

At this point there is a passage which slants down to the third division, passing obliquely down the 1st, then horizontally down the 2nd, and along the ceiling of the 3rd division. In this division are three snakes, upon the 1st are three human heads; the snakes are called ‘on their bellies,’ i.e. reptiles; Selk as an uraeus called ‘Over the Pools; ‘ then comes a man holding two wine-vases called Hap neteru, ‘Guide of the two gods?’ followed by a snake with three heads, two wings, and four feet, called ‘the great living god.’ Behind the scene a square-eared god with sceptre and life, called ‘the peace of the stars;’ a one-headed snake with a symbol of life, called Nahab, ‘the Viper.’ A crocodile-headed god, holding a lituus and snake, and looking behind him, called Han api, ‘He whose head is turned back;’ then follows a hawk-headed god with sceptre and life, called Aba. The goddesses of the ‘South’ and ‘North,’ with their crowns, close the scene. The text in this section reads,—

‘Those who are in this picture do not go to the throne daily. Those who are in this picture have drawn the Sun on that road. He is in the picture on the secret road of Rusta, he lives off the air of his wings, his body (has) three heads;’ this last referring to the winged snake. ‘He who is in this picture he passes the Eye of


Horus,’ or ‘is at the passage made by Horus, who directs the gods on that road; the Osirian prophet-priest Nas-khem, justified son of Ta-hesi, justified like the guide of the two gods (?).’

This seems to refer to the ‘Eye of Horus,’ which lights the subterranean paths of darkness. ‘He who is in this picture at his place of ‘Waters in the secret paths of the Rusta, by which he goes to the throne daily, he lives off the breath of his head. The Osirian prophet-priest Nas-khem, justified son of Ta-hesi, justified to the guides of the road. He is with the Sun daily, the Osirian prophet Nas-khem, son of Ta-hesi, justified.’

3rd division. In this section is a boat, having its prow and stem carved in shape of a human head; on it is a snake with a symbol of life pendent from its mouth, termed ‘the Giver of light to the Earth;’ before this stand a male unarmed god, a lion-headed goddess, named Hanka, and there is seated a goddess called Kata. Before these on the sarcophagus of Gu-her are two snakes, one with life in its mouth, the other bearing a human head, and traces of a two-headed snake, and a man striking, called A…. The name of the snake is Memmennu. The goddess Ma or Truth stands behind, and above is the Hut or ‘Good Demon;’ at the side are three red crowns and three bodies. The text of this section is unintelligible.

The upper gate is called Mats Samu, ‘Closing,’ or ‘Hard against conspirators of Rusta.’ The text reads,

—’He hears them, he speaks to them, he does not pass the divine …led on that secret road.’ The lower road is called ‘The secret road to the body of the waters of the heaven; its number is invisible and imperceptible.’ The gate is called Mats mer, ‘Closing,’ or ‘Hard against the dead.’ The lower road is called the ‘Mystic road’ (of Rumah).

VI. Page. Centre division. The entrance of the Sun into another hour; the god is represented as ram-headed, Af, wearing a disk, under a canopy, adored by the deceased. In the boat are

[p.23] his companions Ap-heru, Sa, Kfaur, Har-heck, Kama or Ka Ement, Nahsi, and the Steersman. Three other boats precede that of the Sun, and before them are the gods Neb nut, ‘Lord of Waters;’ Aa ter, ‘Maker of Limits,’ Maa ter, ‘Beholder of Limits’(?) The first boat rowed by two rowers, one at the prow the other at the poop; in the midst are two mummied hawk-headed deities, called Bakt, another. with a sceptre, Sulen; before the first rower is the word Tua, ‘Blast,’ and the last Khut naf, ‘he has rowed.’ The second boat has lion heads at the prow and poop; in it are, a snake called ‘Peaceful traverser,’ a mummy called Mukhu, ‘blessed;’ a man called Sat her, ‘Fire-faced,’ and a decapitated man named Tes em herf, ‘He whose head is cut off.’ The third or last boat has also two rowers; the one at the prow is called Sal em tef ‘Burning against his enemies’? in the boat is an erect snake called Set or ‘Fire;’ a deity named Neb sam, ‘Lord of Force,’ holding a snake in each hand; another in a cloak called Neb ankh, ‘Lord of life;’ a mummy called Hunha, ‘Youth.’ The boatman is called Sam, ‘Passer.’19 The text of this section is obscure, like the preceding, and appears to read,—

‘The bringing of that great god in the waters of the sole lord, creator of … at every passage of the Osirian prophet Nas-khem, justified, son of the lady Ta-hesi, justified, (to) that great god, sole lord, creator of … he has made his… . He is in the picture. He has made the Osirian Nas-khem pass the region of that great god, he rests awhile in that region, he issues his commands to Osiris and those who belong to him, says those of the mystical boats passing him from the fields of …. (tah-t). That great god rows in peace from that field at the hour of decapitating the wicked. This boat goes round the precincts, taking and passing the Osirian Nas-khem, son of Ta-hesi, [from] that great land from your field, speaking out to those who belong to him.’

Upper division.. Three gods holding sceptres, called Shat Ma, ‘Preparer of Truth;’ Nefru neteru, ‘Best of Gods;’ Nekht Har,

[p.24] ‘powerful Horus;’ a mummied hawk standard, Ilunu, ‘Youth’? These are followed by four female personifications of grief, Hui t (?) ‘Lamentation;’ Unebi t, ‘Tears’? Hatai, ‘Grief;’ Remi, ‘Weeping:’ to whom succeed Ba pef, ‘the Soul;’ Ka am, a horned god, having on his head a mace; Aui tasr, wearing plumes, and an asp, Teba. After these is a sceptre, on which is the leg of a pig, Hankh…. ‘carrying the heart of Urhela,’ or the ‘Uraeus; ‘a man bearing a vase in each hand called ‘the bringer of divine food.’ Anup personified as a jackal on a pylon; Ptah or Vulcan standing, a ram and sword called Settefu, a goddess, and a god bringing offerings called Nuh ….; an ape in a porch called Tebbi, ‘the Enshrined god;’ another ape over a pool adoring, called ‘over his pool.’ The text of this portion is obscure and unintelligible, referring, like the preceding, to the Sun’s passage through the Hades.

That great god speaks to them,

‘they glorify him, they wail when he is elevated above them, that great god is as the Osirian Nas-khem, son of Ta-hesi, priestess of Amen-Ra, justified, he is elevated above the souls and shades who are in the Western Nu or Firmament for ever. The wicked are vanquished … coming forth … from their prisons, ‘they speak their words, they afflict the wicked, they know their punishment (?), they do not come out at the roaring which passes over them. He has not entered these halls; the Osirian prophet of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, Nas-khem, justified, knows that field which has made his food (?)’

3rd division. A deity, whose form is lost, has stood before four figures of Osiris, the name of the god is Akabu, ‘Grief.’ The figures of Osiris wear the red or lower crown, and are named ‘Osiris the living god;’ ‘Osiris the lower country;’ ‘Osiris who…’ Behind these is a god called Ap or ‘Judgment,’ … bes ..’.. heat …’ a snake-headed god with a sword, called Saa sha; a female goddess called Mes-khen or ‘Place of New Birth.’ Then follow three gods grouped together holding

[p.25] swords, called atuma, ‘Annihilators;’ a god bending down and four figures of Osiris wearing the lint, the white or upper crown, called ‘Osiris, taker of millions;’ ‘Osiris enthroned;‘ ‘Osiris who dwells in the West.’ These are succeeded by a god standing in adoration called Nan, and another deity. The text reads,—

‘Those who are in this picture, they glorify that great god …he gives them (his) word, they live, he hails them, he gives them their food, they receive their heads from the breath of his lips. What they do is done in the Amenti …, smiting the souls of the wicked, which are hindered, and have not their place, they put forth flames against the wicked, burning the enemies by the on… their heads. They suffer, they lament when that great god is raised above them … the field he is known to be a spirit who can stand on his feet; the Osirian Nas-khem, son of Ta-hesi, justified, is as a spirit who stands prepared in all respects (shapes) he has overthrown his enemies.’ It is obscure and difficult, like those preceding.

VII. Page. Centre division. The Sun as Af enters another hour of the night, placed under a canopy, and adored by the deceased. In the boat are Isis, Nephthys, as serpents, two gods and Athor in front, and his usual companions Har-hek, Ka Ma or Ka Ement, Nahsi, and the hawk-headed steerer Khu an en Ru or ‘Charon.’ The Sun is preceded by four boats, the first bearing a disk and stand, and a male god called Ermen, ‘Arm,’ setting up a feather of Truth. The prow and poop of the boat are in the form of human heads. The second boat bears the sistrum of Horus, and two attendant female deities, and a scarabaeus in the prow of the boat; before it is inscribed ‘Its name is Sha.’ The prow and poop are in shape of plumes. The third boat bears a crocodile, having above a lint or White Crown, and human heads: it is entitled ‘Concealer of the gods.’ The fourth boat contains a god without arms, adored by two men, having also two decorations or spear-heads. It. is called Aat kerntt, ‘The place … ‘ The poop and prow terminate in uraei.

The text in this section is incomplete, and does not appear to

[p.26] have ever been filled in; it seems to read,—

‘Those who are in this picture tow the boat, they belong to his boat; they transport the Osirian Nas-khem, justified, son of the lady Ta-hesi, justified, to the boat, bringing him …. they go, he makes the journey to that field Hill. …. he goes rowing to the Ouranos; the going round the South the World …. that very great boat.’

2. Upper division. A series of gods on the banks, consisting of Osith, ‘the avenger,’ human-headed; Seb, ‘minister of the two gods,’ also human-headed; another god called Cheru, ‘Thoth in his house,’ ibis-headed; ‘Af on his throne,’ ape-headed; Knit, ‘Punisher of Souls,’ lion-headed; ‘the establisher of his father,’ a god holding a sceptre; ‘Horus of the Stars,’ hawk-headed, wearing an uraeus; ‘the roarer decapitating shades,’ a god elevating his right hand, and holding a sword in his left; Benta, ‘Denier’? ape-headed god; Ab aani, another ape-headed god on a throne; ‘the two-headed,’ a god having the hawk head or Horus, and ass head of Seth; the ‘Crook’ of Osiris; the ‘staff’ of Isis;’ the ‘tablet of Osiris’ with his head; ‘the terrifier of Souls,’ the goddess Pasht seated upon her legs on the ground; ‘Self-born,’ a goddess wearing an uraeus serpent, and holding a sceptre; ‘Devourer,’ similar goddess; ‘Over the Morning,’ a goddess wearing an uraeus serpent; ‘Over force’ or ‘the sceptre,’ goddess holding a sceptre; ‘Devourer of all,’ a goddess; ‘the happy West,’ goddess wearing on her head an emblem of the hill; ‘the Red crown on the Hill,’ goddess wearing this crown; ‘the White crown on the Hill,’ goddess wearing that crown.

The text of this portion appears to read,—

‘Those who are in this picture they adore that great god when he approaches them; they speak when he passes after he has issued his words to them; the gods say they execute his orders on earth. What they do is, they make themselves leaders of the dark shades of night, overthrowing them at their hours. They detain the day, they lead the night; that great god comes out of the pitch dark-


ness in peace into the hall of the Eastern Horizon of Heaven, they hail that great god, they bewail to him when he passes over them; they know of his coming forth at daylight; he betakes himself from the darkness to the amana trees of the great region. The Osirian divine father of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, divine father of Neferhetp (the god Khons), Nas-khem, justified, son of the lady of the house, assistant of Amen-Ra, Ta-hesi, hears the words of the gods on earth, he is with the Sun, in his boat he returns from the fields of the Ouranos like the gods of the Empyreal gate.’

The text of the large line above reads,—

‘The return of that great god to the field of the gods of “Time,” or “the Morning,” he does as they do in that field, he knows their names, he knew their names, that great god ploughs the fields at their words standing in the waters of the Ouranos, the words.’

3rd division. A series of deities relating to Time. Nebi, ‘Fire’ or ‘Smoke,’ facing Neb ‘dates’ (?), Napra, ‘grain,’ and Api or Gaga, ‘Heads,’ each having two ears of corn on their heads; Hat ap, Ab, Nap, nebt, three gods holding sceptres; an announced, Har babi, Neb t sar, ‘Lord of the Tasar,’ or a region of Hades; three gods wearing stars, which they personify, and seated on thrones; ‘Osiris, revealer of good,’ wearing the white crown; Seb, a god holding a sceptre and two stars; ‘the two-handled’ god, with two hands and heads; Hut ar, god with a star; three gods holding tall palm branches; Khu hek, ‘Adored Spirit,’ Makhu, ‘Blessed,’ Renpa, ‘Renewal,’ four gods; god’s bearers of years.

The text reads,—

‘Those who are in this picture they salute that great god with the palm branches in their hands, their fields are verdant with green herbs in the Ouranos of the gods who belong to the Sun, they supply food (?) when that great god commands them, they bruise the Ouranos …. the smeller of the Sun, they throw the


hearts out of the fire … they cry to them, they lament when that great god passes over them in the fire, guarding the fields as a protected spirit, they give protection … the ‘Osirian20 Nas-khem, prophet of Amen-Ra, king of the gods, the justified, has addressed the gods when …. to the Sun, that great god issues his commands to them when he passes over them.’



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