Arabic alphabet is written and read from right to left and horizontally. There are 28 letters in the Arabic alphabet, first let’s have a look at all of them in the table.
As you may have noticed, some of the letters in Arabic don’t exist in English and vice versa. We will first go through the letters that exist in English. [Then] we will go through some letters that are either hard to pronounce or are pronounced a little bit differently, you shouldn’t worry if you can’t pronounce them the right way, because there are always close pronunciations and you still can be understood.
Now that you know how to pronounce the Arabic letters, we will go through reading them, Arabic letters should be written connected to each other, you can simply think of it as if you’re writing in cursive in English, like in the example below you can see how the first WELCOME is written, then the second WELCOME which has all letters connected to each other. Unlike English, Arabic in most cases cannot be written with its letters separated from each other like the way we wrote the word WELCOME.
The Arabic alphabet letters have up to 3 forms, each letter takes a form depending on its position in the word, look at the example below and you will notice that a letter has a form at the beginning of the word, in the middle of the word and at the end of the word, some letters however can keep the same form in one or two positions. The form that a letter takes depends on its position in a given word, and the difference most of the time is very small, like a longer tail to allow it connect with another letter following it.