skandalon: a stick for bait (of a trap), generally a snare, a stumbling block, an offense
Original Word: σκάνδαλον, ου, τό
4625 skándalon – properly, the trigger of a trap (the mechanism closing a trap down on the unsuspecting victim); (figuratively) an offense, putting a negative cause-and-effect relationship into motion.
4625 /skándalon (“the means of stumbling”) stresses the method (means) of entrapment, i.e. how someone is caught by their own devices (like their personal bias, carnal thinking).
[“4625 (skándalon) is the native rock rising up through the earth, which trips up the traveler, hence, of Jesus the Messiah, to the Jews who refused him” (Souter); “properly, the bait-stick of a trap, a snare, stumbling-block” (Abbott-Smith); “the stick in the trap that springs and closes the trap when the animal touches it” (WP, 1, 46).]
cause for stumbling (1), hindrances (1), offense (2), stumbling block (7), stumbling blocks (4).
Thayer’s Greek Lexicon
NT 4625: σκάνδαλον
σκάνδαλον, σκανδάλου, τό, a purely Biblical ((occurring some twenty-five times in the Greek O. T., and fifteen, quotations included, in the New)) and ecclesiastical word for σκανδάληθρον, which occurs occasionally in native Greek writings; the Sept. for מוקֵשׁ (a noose, a snare) and מִכְשׁול;
a. properly, “the movable stick or tricker (`trigger’) of a trap, trap-stick; a trap, snare; any impediment placed in the way and causing one to stumble or fall” (a stumblingblock, occasion of stumbling): Leviticus 19:14; πέτρα σκανκαλου (A. V. a rock of offence), i. e. a rock which is a cause of stumbling (Latinoffendiculum) — figuratively applied to Jesus Christ, whose person and career were so contrary to the expectations of the Jews concerning the Messiah, that they rejected him and by their obstinacy made shipwreck of salvation (see πρόσκομμα), Romans 9:33 and 1 Peter 2:8 (7) (from Isaiah 8:14).
b. metaphorically, “any person or thing by which one is (`entrapped’) drawn into error or sin” (cf. Winer‘s Grammar, 32); α. of persons ((Joshua 23:13; 1 Samuel 18:21)): Matthew 13:41; Matthew 16:23 (where σκάνδαλον “non ex effectu, sed ex natura et condicione propria dicitur,” Calov.); so Χριστός ἐσταυρωμένος is called (because his ignominious death on the cross roused the opposition of the Jews), 1 Corinthians 1:23. β. of things: τιθέναι τίνι σκάνδαλον (literally, in Judith 5:1), to put a stumbling-block in one’s way, i. e. to do that by which another is led to sin, Romans 14:13; the same idea is expressed by βάλλειν σκάνδαλον ἐνώπιον τίνος (to cast a stumbling-block before one), Revelation 2:14; οὐκ ἐστι σκάνδαλον ἐν τίνι (see εἰμί, V. 4. e.), 1 John 2:10; plural σκάνδαλα, words or deeds which entice to sin (Wis. 14:11), Matthew 18:7 (cf. Buttmann, 322 (277) n.; Winer‘s Grammar, 371 (348)); Luke 17:1; σκάνδαλα ποιεῖν παρά τήν διδαχήν, to cause persons to be drawn away from the true doctrine into error and sin (cf. παρά, III. 2 a.), Romans 16:17; τό σκάνδαλον τοῦ σταυροῦ, the offence which the cross, i. e. Christ’s death on the cross, gives (cf. α. at the end above), (R. V. the stumbling-block of the cross), Galatians 5:11; equivalent to a cause of destruction, Romans 11:9, from Psalm 68:23).
Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance
Scandal; probably from a derivative of kampto; a trap-stick (bent sapling), i.e. Snare (figuratively, cause of displeasure or sin) — occasion to fall (of stumbling), offence, thing that offends, stumbling block.
N. T. Word Study: skandalon and skandalizo
From Girardian Lectionary
These two words appear in the New Testament a total of 44 times. The Gospel of Matthew leads by far with 19 occurrences, Mark a distant second at 8. Of the 44 New Testament occurrences, 26 are placed in the mouth of Jesus by the gospel writers. 32 of the 44 are in the four gospels; 9 are from the letters of Paul; and one a piece for 1 Peter, 1 John, and Revelation.
13 verses, 5 word forms, 15 occurrences
|Matt. 13:41; 16:23; 18:7 (3)||3||5|
|Rom. 9:33; 11:9; 14:13; 16:17||4||4|
|1 Co. 1:23||1||1|
|1 Pet. 2:8||1||1|
|1 Jn. 2:10||1||1|
Matthew 13:41 [Jesus said,] “The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will collect out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all evildoers, …”
Matthew 16:23 But [Jesus] turned and said to Peter, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me; for you are setting your mind not on divine things but on human things.”
Matthew 18:7 [Jesus said,] “Woe to the world because of stumbling blocks! Occasions for stumbling are bound to come, but woe to the one by whom the stumbling block comes!”
Luke 17:1 Jesus said to his disciples, “Occasions for stumbling are bound to come, but woe to anyone by whom they come!”
Romans 9:33 as it is written, “See, I am laying in Zion a stone that will make people stumble, a rock that will make them fall, and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.”
Romans 11:9 And David says, “Let their table become a snare and a trap, a stumbling block and a retribution for them….”
Romans 14:13 Let us therefore no longer pass judgment on one another, but resolve instead never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of another.
Romans 16:17 I urge you, brothers and sisters, to keep an eye on those who cause dissensions and offenses, in opposition to the teaching that you have learned; avoid them.
1 Corinthians 1:23 but we proclaim Christ crucified, a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles,
Galatians 5:11 But my friends, why am I still being persecuted if I am still preaching circumcision? In that case the offense of the cross has been removed.
1 Peter 2:8 and “A stone that makes them stumble, and a rock that makes them fall.” They stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do.
1 John 2:10 Whoever loves a brother or sister lives in the light, and in such a person there is no cause for stumbling.
Revelation 2:14 But I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold to the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the people of Israel, so that they would eat food sacrificed to idols and practice fornication.
27 verses, 14 word forms, 29 occurrences
|Matt. 5:29; 5:30; 11:6; 13:21; 13:57; 15:12; 17:27; 18:6; 18:8; 18:9; 24:10; 26:31; 26:33 (2)||13||14|
|Mk. 4:17; 6:3; 9:42; 9:43; 9:45; 9:47; 14:27; 14:29||8||8|
|Lk. 7:23; 17:2||2||2|
|Jn. 6:61; 16:1||2||2|
|1 Co. 8:13 (2)||1||2|
|2 Co. 11:29||1||1|
Note: The passive voice is noted when it occurs; otherwise, the verbs are in active voice.
Matthew 5:29-30 [Jesus said,] “If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away; it is better for you to lose one of your members than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away; it is better for you to lose one of your members than for your whole body to go into hell.”
Matthew 11:6 [Jesus said,] “And blessed is anyone who takes no offense [passive] at me.”
Matthew 13:21 [Jesus said,] “…yet such a person has no root, but endures only for a while, and when trouble or persecution arises on account of the word, that person immediately falls away.”
Matthew 13:57 And they took offense [passive] at him. But Jesus said to them, “Prophets are not without honor except in their own country and in their own house.”
Matthew 15:12 Then the disciples approached and said to him, “Do you know that the Pharisees took offense [passive] when they heard what you said?”
Matthew 17:27 [Jesus said,] “However, so that we do not give offense to them, go to the sea and cast a hook; take the first fish that comes up; and when you open its mouth, you will find a coin; take that and give it to them for you and me.”
Matthew 18:6-9 [Jesus said,] “If any of you put a stumbling block before one of these little ones who believe in me, it would be better for you if a great millstone were fastened around your neck and you were drowned in the depth of the sea. Woe to the world because of stumbling blocks! Occasions for stumbling are bound to come, but woe to the one by whom the stumbling block comes! “If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off and throw it away; it is better for you to enter life maimed or lame than to have two hands or two feet and to be thrown into the eternal fire. 9 And if your eye causes you to stumble, tear it out and throw it away; it is better for you to enter life with one eye than to have two eyes and to be thrown into the hell of fire.”
Matthew 24:10 [Jesus said,] “Then many will fall away [passive], and they will betray one another and hate one another.”
Matthew 26:31 Then Jesus said to them, “You will all become deserters [passive] because of me this night; for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.'”
Matthew 26:33 Peter said to him, “Though all become deserters [passive] because of you, I will never desert you.”
Mark 4:17 [Jesus said,] “But they have no root, and endure only for a while; then, when trouble or persecution arises on account of the word, immediately they fall away [passive].”
Mark 6:3 “Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon, and are not his sisters here with us?” And they took offense [passive] at him.
Mark 9:42-47 [Jesus said,] “If any of you put a stumbling block before one of these little ones who believe in me, it would be better for you if a great millstone were hung around your neck and you were thrown into the sea. 43 If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life maimed than to have two hands and to go to hell, to the unquenchable fire. 44 45 And if your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life lame than to have two feet and to be thrown into hell. 46 47 And if your eye causes you to stumble, tear it out; it is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than to have two eyes and to be thrown into hell.”
Mark 14:27 And Jesus said to them, “You will all become deserters [passive]; for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.'”
Mark 14:29 Peter said to him, “Even though all become deserters [passive], I will not.”
Luke 7:23 [Jesus said,] “And blessed is anyone who takes no offense [passive] at me.”
Luke 17:2 [Jesus said,] “It would be better for you if a millstone were hung around your neck and you were thrown into the sea than for you to cause one of these little ones to stumble.”
John 6:61 But Jesus, being aware that his disciples were complaining about it, said to them, “Does this offend you?”
John 16:1 [Jesus said,] “I have said these things to you to keep you from stumbling [passive].”
1 Corinthians 8:13 Therefore, if food is a cause of their falling, I will never eat meat, so that I may not cause one of them to fall.
2 Corinthians 11:29 Who is weak, and I am not weak? Who is made to stumble [passive], and I am not indignant?
All biblical excerpts from the New Revised Standard Version.