The Peshitta Way

PeshittaHistory of the Peshitta
From Peshitta.org

The Peshitta is the official Bible of the Church of the East. The name Peshitta in Aramaic means “Straight”, in other words, the original and pure New Testament. The Peshitta is the only authentic and pure text which contains the books in the New Testament that were written in Aramaic, the Language of Mshikha (the Messiah) and His Disciples.

In reference to the originality of the Peshitta, the words of His Holiness Mar Eshai Shimun, Catholicos Patriarch of the Church of the East, are summarized as follows:

“With reference to….the originality of the Peshitta text, as the Patriarch and Head of the Holy Apostolic and Catholic Church of the East, we wish to state, that the Church of the East received the scriptures from the hands of the blessed Apostles themselves in the Aramaic original, the language spoken by our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, and that the Peshitta is the text of the Church of the East which has come down from the Biblical times without any change or revision.”

Mar Eshai Shimun
by Grace, Catholicos Patriarch of the East
April 5, 1957

 

History of Aramaic

Aramaic is the ancient language of the Semitic family group, which includes the Assyrians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Arameans, Hebrews, and Arabs. In fact, a large part of the Hebrew and Arabic languages is borrowed from Aramaic, including the Alphabet. The modern Hebrew (square) script is called “Ashuri”, “Ashuri” is the Hebrew name for Assyrian, the name being used to signify the ancestor of the Assyrians, Ashur the son of Shem, the son of Noah (Genesis 10:22). Aramaic is quoted in the very first book of the Bible, Berisheth (Genesis) in Chapter 31:47. In fact, many portions of the Old Testament are penned originally in Aramaic, including Daniel chapter 2:4 thru chapter 7.

The first known inscriptions of Aramaic date to the late tenth or early ninth century B.C.  In  a phenomenal wave of expansion, Aramaic spread over Palestine and Syria and large tracts of Asia and Egypt, replacing many languages, including Akkadian and Hebrew.  For about one thousand years it served as the official and written language of the Near East, officially beginning with the conquests of the Assyrian Empire, which had adopted Aramaic as its official language, replacing Akkadian.

assyriamap.jpg (71158 bytes)

The Assyrian Empire.

During the later Chaldean (Neo-Babylonian) and Persian conquests, Aramaic had become the international medium of exchange.  Despite Hellenistic influences, especially in the cities, that followed the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Aramaic remained the vernacular of the conquered peoples in the Holy Land, Syria, Mesopotamia and the adjacent countries. 

It ceded only to Arabic in the ninth century A.D., two full centuries after the Islamic conquests of Damascus in 633, and Jerusalem in 635.  Aramaic has never been totally supplanted by Arabic.  Aramaic had been adopted by the deported Israelites of Transjordan, exiled from Bashan and Gilead in 732 B.C. by Tiglath-Pileser III, the tribes of the Northern Kingdom by Sargon II who took Samaria in 721, and the two tribes of the Southern Kingdom of Judah who were taken into captivity to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar in 587. 

Hence, the Jews who returned from the Babylonian Captivity brought Aramaic back with them to the Holy Land, and this continued to be their native tongue throughout the lifetime of Eshoo Mshikha.

The Aramaic Inscription of the Tomb of Abba was uncovered north of the Old City of Jerusalem. On the wall above the repository is an Aramaic inscription in ancient Hebrew letters (very unusual in the Second Temple period) which reads:

I, Abba, son of the priest
Eleaz(ar), son of Aaron the high (priest),
I, Abba, the oppressed
and the persecuted (?),
who was born in Jerusalem,
and went into exile into Babylonia
and brought (back to Jerusalem) Mattathi(ah),
son of Jud(ah), and buried him in a
cave which I bought by deed

During the Hellenistic period of the Seleucids, Aramaic ceased to be a uniform language, when various dialects began to form, due to regional influences of pronunciation and vocabulary.  Some of these dialects became literary languages after the differences had increased.  The language, henceforth, divided into an Eastern branch, with a number of dialects, and a Western branch with its dialects, but all of which retained a great similarity.

Aramaic can be dated to five periods, dating from inscriptions that go back to the first millennium B.C.:

  • Old Aramaic, 925-700
  • Official or Imperial (Assyrian) Aramaic, 700-200 (when the language was still uniform)
  • Middle Aramaic, 200 B.C. – 200 A.D.
  • Late Aramaic, 200-700
  • Modern Aramaic, 700 to our time

The Aramaic in which the Bible called “Assakhta Peshitta” is written, known as the Peshitta Text, is in the dialect of northwest Mesopotamia as it evolved and was highly perfected in Orhai, once a city-kingdom, later called Edessa by the Greeks, and now called Urfa in Turkey.  Harran, the city of Abraham’s brother Nahor, lies 38 kilometers southeast of Orhai.  The large colony of Orhai Jews, and the Jewish colonies in Assyria in the kingdom of Adiabene whose royal house had converted to Judaism, possessed most of the Bible in this dialect, the Peshitta Tenakh.

This Peshitta version of the Old Testament was taken over by all the Churches in the East, which used, and still use Aramaic, as far as India, and formerly in Turkestan and China.  The Peshitta Tenakh was completed during Apostolic times with the writings of the New Testament.

sianfu1.jpg (123422 bytes)

Hsian-Fu (Xian) Monument commemorating the arrival of Christianity in China in 635-781 A.D.

Medium: black, sub-granular limestoneApproximate Date: 781 A.D.  Place of Discovery:  Hsian-Fu, Shanhsi Province, China.  Current Location:  Pei-lin, China

This literary form of Eastern Aramaic was pronounced differently in the Western countries under Roman rule and its Byzantine successor, and became the “Western” dialect, influenced by Greek grammar and style.  In the Parthian (Persian) Empire, the language retained its archaic style, syntax and pronunciation.

Greeks had called Aramaic by a word they coined, ‘Syriac’, and this artificial term was used in the West, but not in the East, where it has always been known by its own name, ‘Lishana Aramaya’ (the Aramaic language).  Modern Eastern Aramaic has sixteen dialects, spoken by Christians and Jews, and a widely spoken western dialect.  Modern Western Aramaic is spoken in three small villages north of Damascus, but in a very mixed form with words borrowed from Arabic and Turkish.

Christian manuscripts in Eastern Aramaic are written in the ancient script called Estrangela (round, thick set) with no vowel markings.  After the fifth century A.D., two different scripts developed.  In the West, a script (of which half the letters no longer resemble the Estrangela), called ‘Serto’ (strophe) is used, with five capital Greek letters for vowels, written on their side, above or below the letters.  In the Eastern script, called ‘Madinkhaya’ (Eastern) or ‘Swadaya’ (Contemporary), only five of the twenty-two letters have been slightly modified.  To indicate the seven vowels there are various accents, with two different strokes to indicate the semi-vowels, resembling the Jewish systems of Tiberias or of Babylon.

Modern Aramaic, in its various dialects, is spoken in modern-day Iraq, Iran, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, and the various Western countries to which the native speakers have emigrated, including Russia, Europe, Australia and the United States.

 

Churches which still use Aramaic as their liturgical language include the Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, and the Maronite Catholic Church.

Paul D. Younan
06/01/2000

Source: http://www.peshitta.org/
See also: http://www.peshitta.org/pdf/peshitta.pdf

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